Tuesday, July 21, 2009

US Army Bio Effects of Microwaves, FOIA

DEPARTMENT OFTHE ARMY
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foircloic! G. Maao€, [aivtaxo ao75t5t95
DE8 18 2000
Freedom of Infomation/
Privacy Office
Nft, Donald Friedman
Confidential Legal Correspondence
ll25 Thid Steet
Napa, Califomia 94559-3015
Dear Mr. Friedman:
References:
a. Your Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request dated May 25, 2006, to the Department
ofthe Afmy, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Division (DA FOIA/PA DIV), for all
documents pertaining to the microwave auditory effect, microwave hearing effecr, Frey effect,
artificial telepathy, and/or any device/weapon which uses and./or causesuch effect; and any
covert or undisclosed use of hlpnosis. On September 5, 2006, the DA FOIA/PA DIV refened a
copy of your rcquest to this offica. Yow request was received on September 11,2006.
b. Our letter of September 13, 2006, infoming you of the search for records at another element
ofour command and were unable to comply with the 20-day statutory time limit in processrng
your request.
As noted in our letter, the search has been completed with another element of this command
and the record has be€n retumed to this office for our review and direct response to you.
We have completed a mandatory declassification review in accordance with Executive Order
(EO) 12958, as amended. As a result ofthis review, ithas been determined that the Army
information no longer warrants security classification protection and is releasable to you. A copy
ofthe record is enclosed for your use.
Fees for processing your rcquest are waived.
If you have any questions conceming this action, please feel free to contact this office at (301)
677-2308. Refer to case #614F-06.
Sincercly,
*-a,JL"J
tterfreld
Freedom of Information/Privacy Office
Investi gative Records Repository
Enclosure
SEEffif
iieFenAr
Bioeffects of Selected Nonlethal
Weapons(fn 1)
This addendum to the Nonlethal Technologies*Worldwide (NGIC-I 147-101-98) study
addresses in summary, some ofthe most often asked questions ofnonlethal weapons
technology, the ph)siological responses observed in clinical settings ofthe biophysical
coupling and susceptibility ofpersonnel to nonlethal effects weapons. These results
identify and validate some aspects of maturing nonlethal technologies that may likely be
encountered or used as nonlethal effectors in the future includins:
. Laser and other light phenomena.
. Radioftequency directed energy.
. Awal bioeffects.
The study ofelectromagnetic fields and their influence on biological systems is
incraaiing rapidly. Much ofthis wo* is taking place because ofhealth concems. For
example, increased concem has arisen regarding the effects ofoperator exposure to the
electromagnetic fields associated with short-wave diathermy devices, high power
microwave ovens, rada! systems, magnetic resonance imaging units, etc. In addition,
much concem has arisen about extremely low frequency (60 Hz power frequency)
eleakic and magnetic fields that originate fiom high-voltage kansmission lines, indust[ial
equipment, and residential appliances. Both occupational and residential lo[g-term
exposure have been the focus ofepidemiological studies. The studies have suggested
possible adverseffects on human health (e.9., cancer, rcproduction, etc.). Laboratory
research is still being pursued to identify possible mechanisms ofinteraction. However,
other than thermal heating for microwave frequencies, there is no yet agreed-upon
mechanism ofaction. As a co[sequence, our knowledge base is developed entirely with
phenomenological observations. Because ofthis fact, it is not possible to predict how
norithermal biological effects may diflbr llom one exposure modality to another. It is
especially difficult, because ofthe small data base for fast pulses, to predict biological
effects that might be associated with high-power pulses ofextremely short duration.
There is, however, a growing perception that microwave irradiation and exposure to low
frequency fields can be involved in a wide range ofbiological interactions. Some
investigators are even beginning to describe similarities between microwave irradiation
and drugs regarding their effects on biological systems. For exarnple, some suggest that
power density and specific absorption rate of microwave irradiation may be thought ofas
analogous to the concentration ofthe injection solution and the dosage ofdrug
EEGRADBbUNCj AssT$EDP,.ff c.
BY US.AINSCOM FOIAA
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admin;stration, respectively. Clearly, the effects ofmicrcwaves on brain tissue,
chemistry, and functions arc complex and selective. Observations ofbody weight and
behavior revealed that ruts, exposed rmder certain conditions to microwaves, eat and
drink less, have smaller body weight as a result ofnonspecific stress mediated tbrough
the central nenous system and have decreased motor activity. It has beerl found that
exposure of the animals to one modality of radiofiequency electromagnetic energy
substantially decreases aggtessive behavior during exposure. However, the opposite
effects ofmicrowaves, in increasing the mobility and aggression ofanimals, has also
been shown for a different exposure modality. Recent published data implicates
microwaves as a factor related to a deficit in spatial memory function. A similar tlpe of
effect was observed with exposure to a "resonance tuned" extremely low frequency
magnetic field. Thus, the data base is replete with phenomenological observations of
biological systems "affected" by exposure to electromagnetic energy. (The fact that a
biological system responds to an extemal influence does not automatically nor easily
truslate to the suggestion ofadverse influence on health.) The objective ofthe present
study was to identify information ftom this developing understanding ofelectomagnetic
effects on animal systems that could be coupled with human biological susceptibilities.
Situations whcrc thc intersection ofthese two domains coexist Drovide oossibilities for
use in nonlethal applications.
I[capacitating Effect: Microwave Heatitrg
Body heating to mimic a fever is the natule ofthe R.F incapacitation. The objective is to
provide heating in a very controlled way so that the body receives nearly uniform heating
and no organs are damaged. Core temperatwes approximately 41o C are considered to be
adequate. At such temperature a considerably changedemeanor will take place with the
individual. Most p€ople, under feve! conditions, become much less aggrcssive; some
people may become more initable. The subjective sensations produced by this buildup of
heat are far more unpleasant than those accompanying fever. In hlperthermia all the
effector processes are stmined to the utrnost, whereas in fever they axe not. It is also
possible that microwave h,?erthermia (even with only a 1' C increase in brain
temperature) may disrupt working memory, thus resulting in disorientation.
Biological TsrgeUNormal Functious,/Disease State
The temperature of warm-blooded (homeothermic) animals like the human rcmans
pnctically unchanged although the surrounding temperature may vary considerably. The
nomal human body tempentue recorded ftom the mouth is usually given as 37' C, with
the iectal tempemtue one degree higher. Variation between individuals is tlpically
between 35.8' C and 37.8' C orally. Variatiorc also occur in any one individuai
throughout the day-a difference of l 0' C or even 2.0o C occurring between the
maximum in the late allemoon or early evedng, and the minimum between 3 and 5
o'clock in the moming. Strenuous muscular ex€rcise causes a temporary rise in body
temperatue that is proportional to the severity ofthe exercise; the level may go as high as
40.0. c.
Extreme heat stress, such that the bodys capacity for heat loss is exceeded, causes a
pathological increase in the temperature ofthe body. The subjective sensations prcduced
by this buildup ofheat are far more unpleasant than those accompanying fever. In
hyperthermia all the effector processes are stained to the utmost, whereas in fevers they
are not. The limiting temperature for survival, however, is the same in both cases--a body
temperature of42o C. For briefperiods, people have been known to survive temperatures
as high as 43 ' C.
In prolonged h)?erthermia, with temperatures over 40' C to 41. C, the bmin suffers
severe damage that usually leads to death. Periods ofhlTrerthermia are accompanied by
cerebral edema that damage newons, and the victim exhibits disorientation, delirium, and
convulsions. This sFdrome is popularly referred to as sunstroke, or heatstroke,
depending on the circumstances. When the hyperthermia is prolonged, brain damage
interferes with the central thermoregulatory mechanisms. In particular, sweat secretion
ceases, so that the condition is further exacerbated.
Mechanism to Produce the Desired Effects
This concept builds on about 40 years ofexperience with the heating effects of
microwaves. Numerous studies have been perfomed on animals to identify
characteristics ofimportance to the understanding ofenergy deposition in animals. As a
result of the physics, the relationship between the size ofthe animal and the wavelength
ofthe radiofrequency energy is most important. In fact, the human exposure guidelines to
radioftequency radiation are designed around knowledge ofthe differential absorption as
a functior of fiequency and body size. The challenge is to minimize the time to effect
while causing no permanent injury to any organ or the total body and to optimize the
equipment function. The orientation ofthe incident energy with respect to the orientation
ofthe animal is also important.
In a study ofthe effect ofRF radiation on body tempelature in the Rhesus monkey, a
freqtency (225 MHz) is purposely chos€n that deposits energy deep within the body o f
the animal. A dos€ rate of 10 W,&g caused th€ body temperature to increase to 42o C in a
short time (10-15 min), To avoid ineversible adverse effects, th€ exposurc was
terminated when a temperature of 42o C was reached. A lower dose rate of 5 W,&g
caused the temperature to increase to 41.5o C in less than 2 hours. The reversible narure
ofthis response was demonstrated by the rapid drcp in body temperature when RF
exposure was teminated before a critical temperature of42o C was reached. It is
estimated for rats that the abso6ed threshold conrulsive dose lies between 22 a!td 35 !/g
for exposure dwations ftom less thar a second to l5 minutes. For 30-pinute exposurc,
the absorbed threshold dose for decrease in endurance is near 20 J/g, the threshold for
work stoppage approximately 9 J/g, and the threshold for work pertubation ranges liom
5 to 7 yg. All ofthe above measures, except convulsions, arc t)?es ofnonlethal
incapacition.
A rough estimate of the power required to heat a human for this technology is on the
order of l0 Wkg given about 15 to 30 minutes oftarget activation. Actual power levels
depend on climatic factors, clothing, and other considerations that affect the heat loss
Aom the individual concemed. A method for expressing dose rate in terms ofbody
surface area (i.e., watts per square meter) rather than body mass (i.e., watts per kilogam)
would pemit a more reliable prediction ofthermal effects acrcss species. However, there
axe large uncertainties in the ability to extrapolate thermorcgulatory effects in laboratory
animals to those in human beings.
This technology is an adaptation oftechnology which has been around for many years. lt
is well known that microwaves can be used to heat objects. Not only is microwave
technology used to cook foods, but it is also used as a directed source ofheating in many
industrial applications. It was even the subject ofthe "Pound Proposal', a few years ago in
which the idea was to provide residential heating to people, not living space. Because of
the apparently safe nature ofbody heating using microwave techniques, a variety of
innovative uses ofEM energy for human applications are being explored. The nonlethal
application would embody a highly sophisticated microwave assembly that can be uscd to
prcject microwaves in order to provide a conholled heating ofpersons. This controlled
heating will raise the core temperature ofthe individuals to a predetermined level to
mimic a high fever with the int€nt ofgaining a psychological/capability edge on the
enemy, while not inflicting deadly force, The concept ofheating is straightforward; the
challenge is to idgntify and produce the correct mix ofliequencies and power levels
needed to do the remote heating while not injuring specific organs in the individuals
illuminated by the beam.
A variety offactors contribute to the attractiveness ofthis nonlethal techrology. First, it
is based on a well-known effect, heating. Every human is subject to the effects ofheating;
therefore, it would have a predictability rating of 100%. The time to onset can probably
be engine€red to betweel 15 and 30 minutes; however, timing is the subject ofaddilional
research to maximize heating while minimizing adverseffeats of localized heating. the
onset can be slow enough and,/or ofsuch frequency to be unrecogniz€d by the person(s)
being inadiated. Safety to innocents could be enhanced by the application and additional
developme[t of advanced sensor technologies. locapacitation time could be extended to
almost any desired period consistent with safety. (Given suitable R&D, temperature or
other vital signs could b€ monitorcd remotely, and temperature could be maintained at a
minimum effective point).
Tim€ to Onset
The time to onset is a fulction ofthe power level being used. Carefully monitored
uniform heating could probably take place in between l5 and 30 minutes. Time ro orcet
could be reduced but with increased risk of adverse effects. Minimum time is deDendent
on the power level ofthe equipment and the efficiency ofthe aiming device.
Duration of Effect
Assuming that the heating is done carefully, reversal of elevated body temperature would
begin as soon as the source ofheat is removed.
Tunability
This concept is tunable in that any rute ofheating, up to the maximum capacity of the
souce, may be obtained. Thus it is suitable for use in a gradual force or ',rheostatic',
approach. Ifthe situation allows, and the source is sufficiently powerful, there is the
possibility to use this technology in a lethal mode as well. Prolonged body temperature
above 43' C is almost certain to result in permanent darnage to the brain and death.
Distribution ofHuman Sensitivities to Desired Effects
No reason has been identified to suggesthat anyone would be immune to this
technology. Individuals with compromised thermoregulatory mechanisms would be
susceptible with a lower incident energy density. This would include people with orgalnc
damage to the h,?othalamus, the part ofthe brain that integates the autonomic
mechanisms which control heat loss as well as people with compromised somatic features
ofheat loss (e.g., respiration, water balance, etc.).
The technologies needed for the thermal technology concept are relatively well
d€veloped because ofthe known biophysical mechanism, the universal susceptibility of
humans to the mechanism ofheating, and because ofa well developed t€chnology base
for the production ofradiofrequency ladiation. Because the huma.n body is
inhomogeleous, ceftain organs are, by virtue oftheir size and geometry, more easily
coupled with one radiofrequency wavelength than another. Therefore, to avoid permanent
damage to the susp€ct or to innocent bystarders, it maybe necessary to vary the
frequency to avoid localized heating and consequent damage to any organ, Additionally,
it will be necessary to avoid the conditions thought to be associated with the induction of
cataracts. Thus, while the technology ofmicrowave heating in general is matule,
adaptation as a nonlethal technology will rcquire sophisticated biophysical calculations k)
identify the proper regimen ofmicrowave llequencies and intensities; it will also bc
necessary to optimize existing hardware to meet the bioph,sical requirements.
Possible Itrflu€oc€ or Subject(s)
Ifthe technology functions approximately as envisioned, the targeted individual could be
ircapacitated within l5 to 30 minutes. Because this technology is focused on a relatively
slow onset, it should only be used in situations where speed is not important. The very
uncomfortable nature ofa high body temperature may be useful in negotiations or
possibly for controlling crowds. It would be equally useful on single persons ot crowds.
Evidence also indicates a disruption ofworking memory thus disorientation may occur
because ofall inability to consolidate memory ofthe recent (minutes) past.
Technological Status of Generator/Aiming Device
Equipment needed to explore this concept in the laboratory is available today. Design and
construction ofthe RF/microwave genemtor will depend on the constraints posed by the
calculations, potential generation devices, alld energy-directing structures. A variety of
optlons exist for both ofthese equipment needs. The use of advanced frequency and
modulation-agile RF generation and amplification circuitry will be required to o"scss
fully the frequency/power/time envelope ofRF heating profiles requir;d. Although much
equipment is cornmercially available, it is likely that custom hadware and software will
be necessary because available equipment has not been designed with the need for
frequ€ncy/intensily variability, which w.ill probably be needed for safety purposes. In
addition, the design of antennas and other energy-directing structues wili almost
certainly involve unique configurations. Since this technology utilizes radiofiequency
energy, it can be defeated by the use of shielding provided by conductive bariers like
metal or metal screen.
Ircapacitating Effect: Microwave Hearirg
Microwave hearing is a phenomenon, descdbed by human observem. as. the sensations of
buzzing, ticking, hissing, or knocking sounds that originate within or imrnediately behind
the head. There is no sound propagatilg through the air like nomal sound. This
technology in its crudes! form could be used to distract ildividuals: ifrefined. it could
also be used to communicate with hostages or hostage takeN directly by Morse code or
other message systems, possibly €ven by voiae commudcation.
Biological Target/Normsl Functiotrs/Disease State
This technology makes use ofa phenomenon first described in the literature over 30 vears
ago. Different t)?es ofsounds were heard depending on the particulars ofthe pulse
characteristics. Vaf,ious experiments wer€ performed on humans and laboratorv animals
exploring the origin ofthis phenomenon. At this time, virtually all investigators who hrve
studied_the phelomenon now accept thermoelastic expansion ofthe brain,-the pressurc
wave ofwhich is rcceived and processed by the cochlear microphonic system,io hc tlrc
mechanism ofacoustic perception ofshort pulses ofRF energy. One study (in 1975)
usilg human volunteers, identilied the threshold energy ofmicrowave-auditory rcsponscs
in humans as a function ofpulse width for 2450 MHz radioftequency energy. it is also
found that about 40 J/cmz incident energy density per pulse wai required.
-'
Mechanism to Produce the Desired Effects
After the phenomenon was discovercd, several mechanisms were suggested to explain the
hearing ofpulsed RF fields. Thermoelastic expansion within the brain in rcsponse to RF
pulses was flrst studied and demonstnted in inert matedals fid was Droposed as the
rnechanism ofhearing ofpulsed RF fields. A presstlre wave is generited in most solid
and liquid materials by a pulse ofRI energy--a pressurc wave that is seveml orders of
magnitude larger in amplitude than that resultilg from radiation pressure or from
elecnoslrictive lorces. The characteristics ofthe field-induced coihlear microohoruc rn
guinea pigs and cats. the relationship ofpulse duralion and ltu-eshold. phvsicri
measurements in water and in tissue-simulating materials, as well as numerous theoretical
calculations-all point to thermoelastic expansion as the mechanism ofthe hearins
Dhenomenon.
Scientists have determined the threshold energy level for human observers exposed to
pulsed 2450-MHz fields (0.5-to 32 micrcn pulse widths). They found that, regardless of
the peak ofthe power density and the pulse width, the per-pulse threshold foia normal
subject is neax 20 mJ/kg. The avemge elevation ofbrain temperature associated with a
just-perceptible pulse was estimated to be about 5xl0 6. C.
Time to Onset
The physical nature ofthis themoelastic expansion dictates that the sounds are heard as
the individual pulses are absorbed. Thus, the effect is immediate (within milliseconds).
Humans have been exposed to R.F energy that resulted in the Droduction of sounds.
Duration of Effect
Microwave hearing lasts only as long as the exposure. There is no residual effect afier
cessation ofRF energy.
Turability
Th€ phenomenon is tunable in that the characteristic sounds and intansities ofthose
sounds depend on the characteristics ofthe RF energy as delivered. Because the
ftequency ofthe sound heard is dep€ndent on the pulse chamcteristics ofthe RF energy,
it seems possible that this technology could be developed to the point where words could
be hansmitted to be heard like the spoken wod, excepthat it could only bo heard within
a person's head. In one experiment, communication ofthe words from one to ten using
"speech modulated" microwave energy was successfully demonstrated. Microphones next
to the p€rson experiencing the voice could not pick up the sound. Additional develonncnt
ofthis would open up a wide range ofpossibilities.
Distributiotr ofHuman SeDsitlvities to Desir€d Effects
Because the phenomenon acts directly on cochlear prccesses, the thermoelastic pressure
waves ploduce sounds ofvarying Aequency. Many ofthe tests run to evaluatg the
phenomenon produced sounds in the 5 kHz range and higher. Because humans are kno.wn
to experience a wide range ofhearing loss due to cochlear darnage, it is possible that
some people can hear RF induced sounds that others with high &equency hearing loss
cannot. Thus, there is a likely range ofsensitivity, primarily based on the t)?e ofpulse
and the condition ofthe cochlea. Bilateral destruction ofthe cochlea has been
demonstxated to abolish all RF-induced auditory stimuli.
RecoYery/Safety
Humans have been subjected to this phenomenon for many years. The energy deposrnon
required to produce this effect is so small that it is not considered hazardous
expenmentation when investigating responses at the just-perceptible levels.
11
Possible Influence on Subject(s)
Application ofthe microwave hearing technology could facilitate a pdvate message
transmission. It may be useful to provide a disruptiv€ condition to a person not awaxe of
the technology. Not only might it be disruptive to the sense ofhearing, it could be
psychologically devastating if one suddenly heard "voices within one's head. "
Technological Status of Getrerator/Aiming Device
This technology requires no extrapolation to estimate its usefulness. Microwave energy
can be applied at a distance, and the appropriate technology can be adapted ftom existing
radar units. Aiming devices likewise are available but for special circumstances which
require extreme specificity, there may be a need for additional development. Exteme
directional specificity would be requircd to hansmit a message to a single hostage
sunounded by his captors. Signals can be transmitted long distances (huDdreds ofmeters)
using currentechrology. Innger distances and more sophisticated signal tlpes will
require more bulky equipment, but it seems possible to transmit some t,?e ofsignals at
closer ranges using man-potable equipment.
Range
The effective range could be hundreds ofmeters.
Incapacitating Effect: Disruption of Neural Coutrol
The nature of the incapacitation is a rhythmic-activity sFchronization of brain neurons
that disrupts normal codical conkol ofthe corticospinal and corticobulbar pathways thrs
disrupts normal functioning ofthe spinal motor neurons which control muscle conlt lclron
and body movements. Personsuffering from this condition lose voluntary control of
their body. This s),nchrcnization may be accompanied by a sudden loss ofconsciousness
and intense muscle spasms.
Biological TargeUNormal Functions/Disease Strte
The normal function ofthe brain is to control all forms ofbehavior, voluntary control of
body, and the homeostatic pararnete$ ofthe organism. In normal conditions, all the brain
structur€s, neuro[ populations, networks, and single units function with specific rhyhnic
activity depending on the incoming sensory informatioq infomation fiom mnemonic
skuctwes, and signals f:rom visceral organs. Each single neuron provides specific
processing ofinformation it receives and forms a specific pattern ofimpulse firing as
outgoing information. Synchronization ofn€won activity is a natual mechanism ofthe
brain function that uses such controlling processes as motivation, attention and memory
(experience) in order to organize behavior. For example, motivational prccesses are
considered as activating ascending signals that slarchronize the neuron activity ofspecific
brain structures and neuron networks; this activation/slnchronization in hrm activates
specific forms ofbehavior such as sexual, aggressive, ingestive activities.
In normal functioning the degree ofneuronal synchronization is highly controlled. From
expedments that rccord the neuronal activity iI1 different bmin axeas simultaneouslv in
animals, it is known that corelation ofspike activity between neurons (measured bl the
correlation level of synchronization) changes depending on the slage of behavior,
motivation, attention, or activation ofthe memory processes. HowJver, under some
conditions, such as ph)rsical stress, heat shock, or shong emotional stress, the l€vel of
s),ncbronization may become higher, involving nonspecific large populations ofbrain
neurons and tle s)mclronization may become uncontrollable.
Depending on at which frequency the slmchronization rh),thm occurs and how many
neuons are involved, it may produce different physical effects; muscle weakness,
involuntary muscle contractiols, loss ofconsciousness, or intense (tonic) muscle spasms.
The higher level of sl,nchronization takes place in persons affected with epilepsy when
they expedence periodic seizuresince they have a pathologic source (e.g., frorn injury to
the brain) of rh',thmic s)'nchronization. Because the neurophysiological rnechanisms of
epileptiform syrchronization are better documented, this incapacititing technology rs
described in terms of €pileptogenesis.
The neurophysiological mechanisms active in epileptogenesis involve changes in
membrare conductances and neuotransmitter alteEtions as they affect neuional
interaction. In the process ofepileptogenesis, either some neurons arc discharging too
easily b€cause ofalterations in membmne conductances or there is a failure oiinhibitory
neurotransmission. The actual discharges have been recognized to result from a neuronal
depolarization shift with electrical syrchrony in cell populations related in pa ro
changes in membrane conductances. The ionic basis and biochemical substiate ofthis
activation have been a.reas ofconsiderable study but still leave many questions
unanswered. What arc the basic cellular properties, present in nomal cells and tissuc. rhli
could contribute to the generation ofabnormal activity? What parts ofthe systems are
low threshold and function as trigger el€ments?
'
One ofthe current hlTrotheses is involved with microcircuitry, particularly local slmapnc
interactions in neocortical and limbic system structures. In the hippocampus, the role of
the trigger element has been long attributed to the CA3 pyramidaliells_a hypothesis
based on thc fact that spontaneous s)mchto[ous burst dischaxge can be established in
CA3 neuons Some studies describe an intrinsically bursting
-e[
type in the neocoftex
that plays a role similar to that ofCA3 cells in the hippocampus and that ofdeep cells in
the plriform cortex. The intrinsic natue ofthese cells appears to be all important
contnbutor to the establishment of slnchronized bursting in these regions. Another
apparent requirement in such a population is for a certain degree ofsynaptic interaction
anong neurons, such that discharge of even one cell enlists the activity ofits neighbors.
Given the presence ofthese bursting cells and the occurrence ofexcitatory interactions
arnong them in normal tissue, it may actually be the moryhologic substrate for
epileptiform discharges.
Another h,?tothesis has focused paiicularly on the role ofN-methyl_D-aspartate
(NMDA) receptors. Various factors regulate the effcacy ofNMDA receptors: therr
q
voltage-dependent blockade by magnesium and modulation by glycine and polyamrnes.
For exarnple, in the low magnesium model, spontaneouslncluonous burst discharge in
hippocampal plramidal cell populations is sensitive to NMDA antagonists. That finding
suggests that it is the opening ofNMDA channels, by relieving the magnesium blockade,
that facilitates epileptiform activity.
Significant attention in the literature is also being given to gamma-amino butFic acid
(GABA) receptors for the potential role in control ofexcitability. Changes in GABA
inhibitory efficacy carr lead to important effects on the excitability ofthe system.
GABAergic inhibitory posFsynaptic potentials (lPSPs) have been shown to be quite
labi1e in response to repetitive activation ofcortical cell populations, as may occur during
epileptiform discharge. Scientists have shown that even a small percentage change in
GABA inhibition can have profound effects on neocodical epilsptogenesis. These
changes in CABAergic inhibition may be the key to ao explanation ofhow repetitive
discharge pattems give dse to ictal discharge. Further, there appears to be a significant
increase in excitatory posts)'naptic potential (EPSP) frequency prior to seizue initiation
an observation that is consistent with loss oflPSP efficacy prior to ictal onset-
The above h)?otheses describe different mechanisms ofepileptogenesis, but it is quite
possible that all ofthese mechanisms take place, and they reflect large variety oft)?cs of
epileptic seizures. The common principle ofthe mechanisms proposed is the change of
membrane propeties (i.e., conductance, permeability etc.) ofcertain neurons which
rcsults in d€polarization and burst discharging. Some factors (e,g., tauma) can affect
th€se specific neurons and initiate synchrcny for neurons that conrol intemal
communication and communication with various muscle s)rstems not associated wlth
vital functions (i.e., head beating, breathing). High strength pulsed cl€ctric fields could
also be such a factor.
Mechanism to Reproduce the Desired Effects
Application ofelectromagnetic pulses is also a conceptual nonlethal technology that uses
electromagn€tic energy to irduce neural s)'nchrony and disruption of voluntary muscle
control. The effectiveness ofthis concept has not been demonstrated. However, from past
work in evaluating the potential for electromagnetic pulse generato$ to aflect humans, it
is estimated that sufficiently shong intemal fields can be generated within the brain to
trigger neurons. Estimates are that 50 to 100 kv/m free field ofvery sharp pulses (- I nS)
are required to produce a cell membranic potential of approximately 2 V; this would
probably b€ suflicient to trigger neuons or make them more susceptible to firing.
The elecfomagnetic pulse concept is one in which a very fast (nanosecond timeframe)
high voltage (approximately 100 kv/m or greater) electomagnetic pulse is repeated at
the alpha brain wave frequency (about l5 Hz). It is known that a similar frequency of
pulsing light can trigger sensitive individuals (those with some degree of light-sensitivity
epilepsy) into a seizure and it is thought that by using a method that could actually trigger
nerve s)'napses directly with an electrical fiel4 essentially 100% ofindividuals would be
susceptible to seizure induction. The photic-induced seizure phenomenon was bome out
lo
demonstrably on December 16, 1997 on Japanese television rvhen hundreds ofviewers of
a popular cartoon show were treated, inadvertently, to photic seizure induction (fi eure
lU. The photic-induced seizurc is indirect iD that the eye must rcceive and transmit the
impulses which initially activate a portion ofthe blain associated with the optic nerve.
From lhat point the excitabjlity spreads to other porlions of the brain. Wirh the
electromagneticoncept, excitation is directly on the brain, and all regions are excited
concurently. The onset ofsFchony and disruption ofmuscular conk;l is anticiDated to
be nearly instantaneous. Recovery times are expected to be consistent with, or more rapid
than. that which is observed in epileptic seizures.
Time to Onset
No experimental evidence is available for this cortcept. However, light-induced seizures
latency onset in photosensitive epileptics varies from 0.1 to about l0 seconds. Because of
the fact that the electdcal impuls€s triggered by light must spread to other parts oftho
brain, photic-induc€d seizues are expected to have a genemlly slower onset than neunl
sFchrcny induced by high-stength pulsed electric fields.
Duration of Effect
For epileptic individuals, the t]?ical duration ofa petit mal event or a psychomoror evenr
is I minute or 2, possibly longer, while the duration of a grand mal seizure is I to 5
minutes. In a non-epileptic individual who is induced by el€chomagnetic means, the
durations ofthe different events are expected to be roughly the same as the epileptic
i[dividual's events after the extemal excitation is removed.
Tunability
There are many degrees ofepileptic seizue in diseased penons, and it seems reasonable
that electromagnetic stimulation ofneural syrchrony might be tunable with regard to tnc
and degee ofbodily influence, depe[ding on the parameters associated with the chosen
stimulus. Because there are no actual data to build on, these statements must be
considered tentative. It is known that in the study ofphotic-induced seizues, panmeters
can be varied so that the individual under study does not actually undergo a grand mal
seizure. This knowledge giv€s co[fidence that the proposed technology wouid be tunable.
Distribution ofHumatr Sensitivities to Desired Effects
It is anticipated that 100% ofthe population would be susceptible. The mechanism is one
that could act orl many individual neuronal cells concurrently and hence does not depend
on spreading regions ofelectrical activity as in the disease state.
Possible Inlluence otr Subjects(s)
If the technology functions approximately as envisioned, the targeted individual could be
rncapacitated very quickly. Because there have been no reported studies using the
I \
conditions specified, experimental work is required to chaxacterize onset time. Different
tlpes of technologies could be employed to influence wide areas or single individuals.
Because this technology is considered to be tunable, the influence on subjects could vary
ftom mild disruption ofconcentmtion to muscle spasms and loss ofconsciousness. The
subject(s) would have varying degrees of voluntary control depending on the chosen
degree of incapacitation.
Technological Status of Generator/Aiming Device
An electric field skength ofroughly 100 Kv/m over a time period of 1 nanosecond is
approximately the condition thought to be necessary to produce the desired effect when
provided to an overall repetition rate of 15 Hz. Such a field may be developed using a
radarlike, high-peak-power, pulsed souce or an electromagnetic pulse generator
operated at 15 Hz. These technologies exist today sufficiento evaluate the disabling
concept. Power requirements are not high because the duty factor is so low. Aimrng
devices are curently available, but a high degree ofdirectionality at lorg distances will
require development, It may be necessary to provide bursts ofthese nanosecond pulscs in
order to stimulate the desired effect. As the duty time increases so does the averagc
power requirement for power source, Because there were no open literature reports from
which to make inferences, there is some uncertainty about the power levels required.
Ratrge
The effective range could be hundreds of mete$.
Defeat Capabilities/Limitatiors
Shielding can be provided by conductive barriers like metal or metal screen. There arc a
number ofdrugs that are capable ofinducing convulsive seizures and others, like
phenoba6ital, diphenyllhydantoin, trimethadione, 2-4 dinitrophenol, and acetazohunide,
which are aoticonlulsive. Anticonvulsive drugs are known to be helpful in reducing the
effect ofseizures in epil€ptic patients, but their ability to reduce the effect ofthe proposed
technology is unlinown (possibly no effect) but expected to be less than for photicinduced
seizures.
Incapacitating Effect; Acoustic Energy
The nature ofthe incapacitation coNists of severc prcssure sensations, nystagnus (a
spasmodic, involuntary motion ofthe eyes), and nausea caused by high intensities of
9140-155 dB). Nlstagmus occrus when convection curlents axe produced (cupula
movement) in the lateral ear canal. This cupula movement causes the eyes to move
involuntarily; hence, the extemal world is interpreted as moving. The subject',sees', his
surroundings tuming rcund him and at the saine time experiences a sensation of tuming.
Persons exposed to these levels of sound experience nausea.
Biological TargevNormal Functiols/Disease State
7
The two lateml semicircular canals, one located in each inner ear. alert a peNon to the
fact that his upight head is experiencing angular acceleration. Within th; ampulla ofthe
canal are several so called hair cells. The cilia of these cells prolrude into the lumen of
the ampulla where they {rre encased in a mass ofjelly-like material (the cupula) which is
attached to the opposite wall ofthe canal. As the head accelerates, the cilia arc bent by an
inertial force ofthe cupula and the viscous liquid in the canal lumen. The bending ofihe
cilia excites hair cells which in tum excite afferent neurons; tlese then alert the brain that
a change ofposition ofthe head has occurred. Similar events occur when the head stops
moving. The result ofa strong hair cell stimulus to the bmin is a rapid eye movement,
call nystagmus, a feeling ofdizziness and disorientation, and a Dossibilitv ofnausea and
vomltmg.
Normal hearing is in the range between the frequencies of20,000 to 16,000 Hz with the
optimal sensitivity for most people between the ftequencies of500 to 6000 Hz.
Mechanism to Produce the Desired Effects
Because the end organs for acoustic and vestibular perception are so closely related,
intense acoustic stimulation can result in vestibular effects. The h]?othesis is that the
sound ofnormal intensity produces oscillations ofthe endolymph and perilynpn,
compensated for by oscillations ofthe round window. High intensity sound produces
eddy cunents, which are localized rotational fluid displacements. High intensity sound
can also produce nonlinear displacement ofthe stapes, causing a volume displacement,
the result ofwhich can be a fluid void in thc laby.inth. To fill the void, fluid may be
displaced along the endollmphatic duct and,/or block capiltary pathways, which, in tum,
could stimulate vestibular receptors. Stimulation ofthe vestibular receptors may lead to
nauseand vomiting if the sound pressure level is high enough. Conclude that both tj(l(ly
currents and volume displacement serve to stimulate vestibular receptors in humans,
when exposed to high lev€ls ofnoise.
One study found nystagmum in guinea pigs €xposed to high levels ofinfrasound via
stimulation ofthe vestibular recepto$. Howev€r, the same lab was unable to produce
nystagmus in human subjects at 5- and 10-second exposures to a pure tone at 135 dB,
broadband engine noise, or a I 00 Hz tone at I 20 dB, pulsed three times/s or 2 minutes.
The sarne research was unable to elicit nystagmus at levels up to 155 dB, and also equally
unable to produce nystagmus using infrasound levels of I l2-150 dB in guinea prgs,
monkeys, and humars. However, research with audible components in the sound
spectrum with guinea pigs and monkeys produced nystagmus. Other researchers report
other vestibular effects in addition to nystagmus at the following thresholds: 125 dB fiom
200-500 Hz,l40 dB at 1000 Hz, and 155 dB at 200 Hz. Decremerts in vestibula.r
tunction occur consistently for broadband noise levels of 140 dB (with hearins
prolectlon).
Human subjects listened to very high levels of low-frequency noise and infrasound in the
protected or unprctected modes. Two-minute duration as high as 140 to 155 dB produced
a mnge of effects from mild discomfort to severe pressure sensations, nausea, gaggrng,
l3
and giddiness. Effects also included bluned vision and visual field distoiions in some
exposure conditions. The natwe and degree ofall effects was dependent on both sound
level and liequency with the most severe effects occurring in the audible fiequency range
(as opposed to infrasound), at levels above about 145 dB. The investigators found no
temporary threshold shift (TTS) among their subjects, and the use of hearing prctecton
greatly alleviated the adverse effects.
Since the early days ofjet-engine testing and maintenance, a[ecdotal evidence has
appeared linking exposue to intense noise, with such complaints as dizziness, vertigo,
nausea, and vomiting. As a result ofsiren noise at 140 dB, subjects consistently reported
a feeling ofbeing pushed sideways, usually away ftom the exposed ear, and one subject
reported difflculty standing on one foot.
These effects were not as dramatic as from th€ jeFengine Oroadband) noise at 140 dB.
This research concludes that the threshold of labyrinthine dysfunction is about 135 to 140
dB and that these effects occur during, but not after, exposurc.
Time to Otrset
No times to onset ofnausea or n)stagmus werc identified in the literature but is presumcd
to be relatively immediate based on effects to the labyrinth system occwring during, but
not after, exposure to sound pressure levels of 135 to 140 dB.
Duration of Effect
The incapacitation la6ts only as lotlg as the incapacitating sound is present.
Tunability
Based on the data presented above, it is unclear whether the degree ofnausea or
nystagmus is tunable, but similar symptoms caused by other stimuli a.re variable in
degre9.
Distribution ofHuman Sensitivitles to Desir€d Effects
It is most probable that all individuals will be susceptible to this stimulus with the
exception ofthose with a disease or defect (i.e., deafmutes) ofsome part or parts of the
vestibular system. Data showed no consistent decrease in vestibulo-ocular reflects with
inoeased age.
Recovery/S afety
Normal subjects are likely to recover immediately and experience no or unmeasurable
changes in hearing unless well known liequency-intensity-time factors are exceeded.
This is based on studies which found no temporary threshold shift in hearing of subjects
tested at low frequency. Occupational safety personnel generally recognize that 1 I 5
r+
dB(A) is to be avoided and that 70 dB(A) is assumed safe. Is believed that the noise
energy with predominating frequencies above 500 Hz have a greater potential for hearing
loss than noise energy at lower frequencies. Occupational standards for noise state that a
person may be exposed continuously for 8 hours to 90 dB(A) or 1 5 minutes to I 1 5
dB(A).
Possible Influence on Subject(s)
Induction ofnystagmus and nausea will have variable effects on individuals. Effects may
be sufficiently incapacitation to allow offensive advantage; the perception of sickness
may make a subject susceptible to peFuasion. It would be dilncult to target single
individuals at the present level of sound directing technology. This technology may be
better suit€d for goups ofpeople.
Techtrological Status of Generator/Aimltrg Device
Sound generating technology is well developed but not highly portable. Aiming dcvices
are poorly developed.
Rrnge
Under normal circumstanc€s the sound pressule level decreases 6 dB(A) when the
distance from the source is doubled. For example ifthe sormd is 100 dB(A) at 100 It, at
200 ft the sound would be 94 dB(A). At very high sound levels, certain conditions may
lead to nonlinear effects in propagation and greatly increase range accuracy.
Defeat Capabiliti€s/Limitrtions
Negative effects ofaudible sound are greatly decreased ifhearing prctection is wom.
High frequency sound is more easily blocked than low frequency sou[d due to
wav€length eff€cts.
Lrser-hduced Biological Effects
Their are three basic damage mechanisms associated with exposure to laser radiation:
chemical, thermal, ard mechanical or acoustic-mechanical.
The laser-induced, chemical alteratio$ in irradiated tissue are referred to as
photochemical damage. The likelihood of laser radiation in the blue-light portion of the
electromagngtic spectrum (.380 to .550 microns) inducing photochemical reactions
progressiv€ly d€creases with increasing wavelength. Photochemical effects are not
observed upon exposure to ndiation with wavelengths exceeding .550 to .650 micfons
because the kinetic energy associated with these photons is insufficient to initiate a
photochemical change.
l5
On the other hand, the thermal effect is a primaxy mechanism for laser-induced mJ ury.
The extent of the injuries induced depends upon the wavelength and energy ofthe
incident mdiation, duration of exposure, and the natule ofthe exposed tissue and its
absorption characteristics. Generally, this mechanism predominites in the visible and the
near-infrared (.760 to 1.4 microns) portions ofthe electromagnetic spectrum and for
almost all CW and pulsed exposures between 0.1 milliseconds and I to 5 seconds.
The third injury mechanism associated with exposure to laser radiation is the mechanical
or acoustical-mechanical effect. The radiant energy is absorbed into the tissue and, as a
result ofrapid thermal expansion following a short (l nanosecond to 0.1 millisecond)
laser radiation pulse, a pressure wave is generated that may result in explosive tissue
injury.
Generally, all three mechanisms operate concunently in an iradiated animal. Thermar
effects currently predominate for continuous wave (CW) lasers, while mechanical effects
are ofincreased sigrificance for pulsed-mode lasers. With even higher power, one must
also consider nonlinear phenomena such as multiphoton absorption and electromagnetic
field effects.
The organs most susceptible to extemal laser radiation are the skin and eyes. The severity
ofinjury is affected by the nature of the target, the energy density delivered to the mrger,
the fiequency and power ofthe laser, atmospheric attenuation ofthe beam, and the use of
filtering or ampliflng optics by the target, etc.
The primary effect on the skin is thermal darnage (bums). The severity varies ftom slight
er],'thema or reddening to severe blistering or charring, depending on such factors as total
energy deposition, skin pigmentation, and the tissue,s ability to dissipate heat.
The eye is particularly susceptible to intense pulse oflaser radiation because ofits unique
sensitivity to light. The focusing effect is similar to that ofa magnifying lens, which
focuses tbe energy on a particular spot. Since the comea and lens ofthe eye amplify the
intensity ofthe light incident upon the retina, the retina is extremely sensitive to visible
and near-inftared light, and damage to the retina may result in temporary or permanent
loss ofvisual acuity. Laser eye injuries vary according to incident power, spot size, beam
angle, temporal mode (CW or pulsed), and pulse repetition frequency. Reported effects
include comeal lesions, bums, cataracts, and retinal lesions.
Some high-power lasers can cause antipersonnel effects by the deposition of themal
energy. These lasers must operate at a wavelength that is readily absorbed by the skin or
the comea. These generally include the far- and mid-IR regioru (10 to 12 microns and 3
to 5 microns) as well as the ultraviolet region (<0.4 microns). However. ultraviolet
wavelengths generally do not propagate well in the atmosphere, so the primary threat
wavelengths to be considered are between 3 and l2 microns. Although relatively modest
amounts of far-IR laser power are required to produce superficial bums on the skin at
short ranges, and efforts to design rheostatically lethal laser weapons are on going.
lb
Nonlethal blinding laser weapons generally use collimated beams with very low beam
divergence, and the energy contained in the beam diminishes relatively slowly over great
distances. knagilg systems such as eyes and EO vision systems have focusing optics that
bring the incident plane wave of light to focus at the sensor plane. This results in a high
optical gain (geater than 100,000 for eyes), which makes the associated sensor
luLoerable to relatively low fluences oflaser energy.
The effects of lasels on eyes are threefold:
. Dazzling or induced g1are.
. Flashblinding or loss ofnight adaptation.
. Pemanent or semipermanent blinding.
The severity oflaser eye injuries varies according to the incident power, spot size, beam
angle, pupil diameter (ambient light conditions), temporal mode (CW or pulsed), anPRF ofthe laser. Reported effects include comeal bums, catamcts (a pemanent
cloudiness ofthe lens), and retinal bums and perfoEtions. fow-energy laser weapons arc
capable ofcausing the latter.
Exposue to relatively low laser energies can produce temporary changes in the ability to
see without producing permanent injury. Exposue to laser light can produce an effect
call€d glare or dazzle, which is similar to the temporary loss ofvision experience whco
viewing the headlights ofan oncoming car. The visual effects last only as long as the
light is present in the lield ofview (FOV). At slightly higher energy exposures, the sam€
laser radiation can saturate or flashblind the photoreceptor cells, resulting in after rmages
that fade witi time after exposue. Only visible radiation will induce veiling glare or aftcr
images; near-IR radiation will not produce these effects even though the radiant encrgy
reaches the photor€ceptor cells. Flashblindness and dazzle, while not permanent in,urrus,
can cause discomfort and temporary loss ofvision. Some studies have shown thar uazzle
and flashblindness can seriously impact mission performance, especially in highly visual
tasks such as piloting an aircraft or aiming.
Blinding is the permanent or semipermarent loss ofvisual acuity. The effect can lasr
fiom several hou's onward and generally is evidenced by a da* spot in the field of
vision. This spot is called a scotoma. The impact ofthe scotoma on visual acuity will
vary with the size and position ofthe injury. Human vision is greatly affected when the
laser damage is to the central vision area ofthe retina called the fovea. Nonfovealaser
damage may be less severe or even go unnoticed because it affects only the peripheral
vision. The most serious retinal injuries occur when the incident light is so intense that a
perforation in the retina is formed, resulting in a hemonhage into either the subretinal
layer or, in the most severe cases, the vitreous humor ofthe eve. Less severe exDusurcs
result in lesions on the retila.
Foot ote:
1-(U) This appendix is classified FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY in its entirery.
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