Tuesday, July 21, 2009

Bluebird, MPD, Colin Ross

This Document and the others that follow are evidence of criminal wrong doing that relate directly or indirectly to the charges of crimes against humanity. Many of these documents are military doctrine papers and government documents that describe the new weapons systems and how they should be used. There are over 60 similar supporting documents on the google documents page that need examination. These documents are reproduced without addition, deletion or correction

BLUEBIRD Deliberate Creation of Multiple Personality by Psychiatrists
By Colin A. Ross MD
A 10-Page Summary
In this summary of Bluebird, Dr. Ross describes unethical experiments conducted by psychiatrists to create amnesia, new identities, hypnotic access codes, and new memories in the minds of experimental subjects. His research is based on 15,000 pages of documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. Dr. Ross is a past president of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation. Please help to spread the word.
Historical Background
The Manchurian Candidate is compelling evidence for the reality of therapist-created multiple personality disorder. The condition has been created deliberately by mind control doctors. Experiments to create Manchurian Candidate "super spies" must be understood in their social and historical context, which is one of pervasive, systematic mind control experimentation, not by a few isolated renegade doctors, but by the leaders of psychiatry and the major medical schools. Because this book is likely to provoke extreme reactions, I have taken great care to present only facts which are fully documented and based on objective, public domain information. Page E
The basic premise of the book The Manchurian Candidate [1] is that a group of American POWs in the Korean War is brainwashed while crossing through Manchuria to freedom. They arrive back in the US amnesic for the period of brainwashing, and one of them has been programmed to be an assassin. His target is a candidate for president of the US. His Asian handlers control him with a hypnotically implanted trigger, a particular playing card. P. 23
Multiple personality disorder is now classified by the American Psychiatric Association [2] as dissociative identity disorder. According to my definition, the Manchurian Candidate is an experimentally created dissociative identity disorder that meets the following four criteria:
 Created deliberately
 A new identity is implanted
 Amnesia barriers are created
 Used in simulated or actual operations
That the CIA created Manchurian Candidates is a fact, and easy to understand and justify from a national security perspective. I am not criticizing the CIA or the military because I am not an expert on intelligence matters. I am a psychiatrist specializing in dissociative disorders. Page G
BLUEBIRD blows the whistle on extensive political abuse of psychiatry in North America in the second half of the 20th century. Many thousands of prisoners and mental patients were subjected to unethical mind control experiments by leading psychiatrists and medical schools. Organized academic psychiatry has never acknowledged this history. The network of mind control doctors involved in BLUEBIRD has done a great deal of harm to the field of psychiatry and to psychiatric patients. My goal is to break the ugly silence. Page K
The participation of psychiatrists and medical schools in mind control research was not a matter of a few scattered doctors pursuing questionable lines of investigation. Rather, the mind control experimentation was systematic, organized, and involved many leading psychiatrists and medical schools. The mind control experiments were interwoven with radiation experiments, and research on chemical and biological weapons. They were funded by the CIA, Army, Navy, Air Force, and by other agencies including the Public Health Service and the Scottish Rite Foundation. Page F
The psychiatrists, psychologists, neurosurgeons, and other contractors conducting the work were imbedded in a broad network of doctors. Much of the research was published in medical journals. The climate was permissive, supportive, and approving of mind control experimentation. P. F, 1
The work of the mind control doctors did not occur in a vacuum. The importation of Nazi doctors to the US through secret programs like PAPERCLIP is part of the context. After the end of World War II, German scientists and technical experts were being held in detainment camps. The British, French, Americans, and Russians became embroiled in highly competitive recruiting efforts to secure the services of these German specialists. The prospect of losing the industrial and scientific services of these German experts lead to the creation of Project PAPERCLIP. [3][4][5] P. 1, 3
Over 1,000 German scientists were secretly brought into the US without State Department approval. The most famous individual brought over in this manner was Werner von Braun, the rocket scientist. Von Braun was the head of the German V2 rocket program. The NASA rockets that took Neil Armstrong to the moon were built by von Braun and his colleagues. Medical doctors also came over under PAPERCLIP. P. 3, 4
Likewise, the Tuskeegee Syphilis Study helps us understand how mind control experimentation was not only tolerated by medical professionals, but published in peer-reviewed literature. [6][7] The Study, started in Alabama in 1932, was run by the Public Health Service. 399 illiterate, poor rural black men with syphilis were recruited as subjects, along with 201 controls without syphilis. The purpose of the Study was to make sure the 399 men never got treatment. The subjects and their families weren't told they had syphilis and didn't know it was treatable. They were told that they had bad blood. P. 1, 9, 10
The cure for syphilis, penicillin, was introduced in the early 1940‟s. It was withheld from the Tuskeegee men for 30 years. The published results of the Study showed the men with untreated syphilis were sicker and died younger than controls. [8] How many women were infected with syphilis because these men were deliberately not treated? How many children were born with syphilis because of the Study? P. 11
The Tuskeegee Syphilis Study was eventually shut down in 1972 because of the efforts of an investigative journalist. There is no evidence to suggest that the government or the medical progression had any intention of closing the study as of 1972. People and organizations that knew about the Study included the Surgeon General, the American Heart Association, and the Center for Disease Control. Throughout its 40-year course, the Tuskeegee Study was praised and received various honors. P. 9-13
The Tuskeegee Study establishes that a large network of doctors and organization were willing to participate in, fund, and condone grossly unethical medical experimentation into the 1970‟s. The Study proves that considerable external pressure is often required before the medical profession takes the necessary action to terminate such experimentation. P. 14
Unethical radiation experiments were conducted on about 600 subjects [9][10][11] in the US beginning in the 1940‟s and running into the 1970‟s. Many people were injected with plutonium and exposed to other forms of radiation without their informed consent. 18 patients were injected with plutonium in an experiment run by the MANHATTAN PROJECT. Prisoners in Washington and Oregon state prisons were paid to have their testicles irradiated. They got $5 a month for the irradiation. During the experiment, which ran from 1963 to 1971, the subjects‟ testicles were exposed to 600 roentgen of radiation, which is 100 times the maximum recommended dose. P. 15-17
Clouds of radioactive material were released into the atmosphere and tracked as they moved downwind, often through populated areas. In one experiment code-named GREEN RUN, radioactive iodine-131 released from the Hanford Nuclear Facility drifted over Spokane. The cloud contained hundreds of times as much radiation as was released accidentally at Three Mile Island in 1979. P. 17
As was true of mind control and biological weapon research, radiation research experiments were conducted on children and unwitting civilians. In 1961, researchers at Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Boston University School of Medicine gave radioactive iodine to seventy retarded children at Wrentham State School. At Fernald School, MIT gave radioactive substances to children by putting it in their food. No risks of radioactivity were mentioned in the consent form signed by the parents. The consent form stated that the purpose of the experiments was "helping to improve the nutrition of our children." P. 15, 18
Dr. Saul Krugman of New York University and his staff deliberately injected severely mentally retarded children at Willowbrook State School with hepatitis virus in the 1950‟s and 1960‟s, [12] funded by the Army Medical Research and Development Command. To date there has been no compensation for victims of unethical biological experiments. P. 18, 19
Army doctors were actively involved in LSD testing at least until the late 1970‟s. Subjects of LSD experiments included children as young as five years old, and brain electrodes were implanted in children as young as 11 years of age. Four of the CIA‟s MKULTRA Subprojects were on children. The mind control doctors included Presidents of the American Psychiatric Association
and psychiatrists who received full-page obituaries in the American Journal of Psychiatry. Responsibility for the unethical experimentation lies first with the individual doctors, but also collectively with the medical profession and with academia as a whole. P. 21
Cold War Mind Control Experimentation
BLUEBIRD was approved by the CIA director on April 20, 1950. In August 1951, the Project was renamed ARTICHOKE. BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE included a great deal of work on the creation of amnesia, hypnotic couriers, and the Manchurian Candidate. [13][14] ARTICHOKE documents prove that hypnotic couriers functioned effectively in real-life simulations conducted by the CIA in the early 1950‟s. The degree to which such individuals were used in actual operations is still classified. P. 23
The BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE documents available through the Freedom of Information Act, like all such documents, are heavily redacted. A great deal of text has been whited out, and other documents must still be entirely classified. BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE were administered in a compartmented fashion. The details of the programs were kept secret even form other personnel within the CIA. When asked why LSD research done under ARTICHOKE was hidden from the CIA Committee in charge of ARTICHOKE, Sydney Gottlieb, Chief, Medical Staff, Technical Services Division, CIA, responded, "I imagine the only reason would have been concern for broadening awareness of its existence." P. 25, 27
An article in the February 18, 1979 Wilmington Sunday News Journal states: "The ARTICHOKE interrogation was conducted in a safe house in the remote countryside staffed by security-cleared personnel. It was conducted under medical cover of a routine physical and psychological assessment. The Subject was transported to the safe house in a „covert car.‟ At the safe house he was given a conventional interrogation and then some whiskey. This was followed by two grams of Phenobarbital, which put him to sleep. A lie detector test was given, and the Subject was given intravenous chemicals. Following the chemically-assisted interrogation, the ARTICHOKE techniques were applied in three stages. A false memory was introduced into the Subject‟s mind without his conscious control. The procedure was repeated again with interrogation added." P. 28
ARTICHOKE operations involved detailed, systematic creation of specific amnesia barriers, new identities and hypnotically implanted codes and triggers. An ARTICHOKE document dated 7 January 1953 [15] describes the experimental creation of multiple personality in two 19-year old girls by the CIA. "H" is used as shorthand for hypnotic, hypnotized, or hypnotism:
"These subjects have clearly demonstrated that they can pass from a fully awake state to a deep H controlled state via the telephone, via some very subtle signal that cannot be detected by other persons in the room, and without the other individuals being able to note the change. It has been clearly shown that individuals can be induced into H by telephone, by receiving written matter, or by the use of code, signal, or words. Control of those hypnotized can be passed from one individual to another without great difficulty. It has also been shown by experimentation with these girls that they can act as unwilling couriers for information purposes, and that they can be
conditioned to a point where they believe a change in identity on their part even on the polygraph." P. 32
Another ARTICHOKE document describes "Analogous Case #3." "A CIA Security Office employee was hypnotized and given a false identity. She defended it hotly, denying her true name and rationalizing with conviction the possession of identity cards made out to her real self. Later, having had the false identity erased by suggestion, she was asked if she had ever heard of the name she had been defending as her own five minutes before. She thought, shook her head, and said, „That‟s a pseudo if I ever heard one.‟ Apparently she had true amnesia for the entire episode." P. 32, 33
In an experiment described in a document entitled "SI and H experimentation [16] (25 September 1951)", two female subjects took part in an exercise involving the planting of a bomb. Both subjects performed perfectly and were fully amnesic for the exercise: "[Deleted] was instructed that upon awakening, she would proceed to [deleted] room where she would wait at the desk for a telephone call. Upon receiving the call, a person known as "Jim" would engage her in normal conversation. During the course of the conversation, this individual would mention a code word. When she heard this code word, she would pass into a SI trance state, but would not close her eyes and remain perfectly normal and continue the telephone conversation. P. 37
She was told that upon conclusion of the telephone conversation, she would then carry out instructions: [Deleted] was shown an electric timing device. She was informed that this device was a bomb, and then instructed how to set the device. After [deleted] learned how to set and attach the device, she was told to take the timing device which was in a briefcase, and proceed to the ladies room [where] she would be met by a girl whom she had never seen who would identify herself by the code word "New York." [Deleted] was then to show this individual how to attach and set the timing device and further instructions would be given that the timing device was to be carried in the briefcase to [deleted] room, placed in the nearest empty electric-light plug and concealed in the bottom, left-hand drawer of [a] desk, with the device set for 82 seconds and turned on." P. 37, 38
The BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE materials establish conclusively that full Manchurian Candidates were created and tested successfully by physicians with TOP SECRET clearance from the CIA. P. 61
As well as being potential couriers and infiltration agents, the subjects could function in effect as hypnotically controlled cameras. They could enter a room or building, memorize materials quickly, leave the building, and then be amnesic for the entire episode. The memorized material could then be retrieved by a handler using a previously implanted code or signal, without the amnesia being disturbed. Hypnosis was not the mind control doctors‟ only method for creation of controlled amnesia, however. Drugs, magnetic fields, sound waves, sleep deprivation, solitary confinement, and many other methods were studied under BLUEBIRD and ARTHICHOKE. P. 38
Another problem addressed repeatedly in the documents is called "The Problem of Disposal of Subjects." Several personnel recommended the use of lobotomies for this purpose, but according to the documents this was rejected as too unethical and too high a negative publicity risk. P. 41
The usage of electric shock to the brain for the creation of amnesia with hypnosis was discussed by an ARTICHOKE document dated 3 December 1951: "[Deleted] is reported to be an authority on electric shock. He is a psychiatrist of considerable note. [Deleted] explained that electric shock might be of considerable interest to the „Artichoke‟ type of work. He stated that the standard electric-shock machine (Reiter) could be used. He stated that using this machine with convulsive treatment, he could guarantee amnesia for certain periods of time, and particularly he could guarantee amnesia for any knowledge of use of the convulsive shock. He stated that the lower setting of the machine produced a different type of shock. When this lower current type of shock was applied without convulsion, it had the effect of making a man talk. He said that this type of shock produced in the individual excruciating pain. He stated that there would be no question that the individual would be quite willing to give information if threatened with the use of this machine. It was [deleted]'s opinion that an individual could gradually be reduced through the use of electro-shock treatment to the vegetable level." P. 44
ARTICHOKE and BLUEBIRD were administratively rolled over into MKULTRA, which was created by the CIA on April 3, 1953. MKULTRA was in turn rolled over into MKSEARCH on June 7, 1964. MKSEARCH then ran until June 1972, at which time extensive shredding of MKULTRA and MKSEARCH files was ordered by the Director of the CIA, Richard Helms. The surviving MKULTRA documents can be obtained from the CIA under the Freedom of Information Act. There was a round of declassification of mind control documents in the 1970‟s which were the foundation of books published in the 1970‟s and 1980‟s. [17][18][19][20][21][22][23] P. 7
A document entitled, "Hypnotic Experimentation and Research, 10 February 1954" [24] describes a simulation experiment of relevance to the creation of Manchurian Candidate assassins: "Miss [deleted] was then instructed (having previously expressed a fear of firearms) that she would use every method at her disposal to awaken miss [deleted] (now in a deep hypnotic sleep), and failing this, she would pick up a pistol nearby and fire it at Miss [deleted]. She was instructed that her rage would be so great that she would not hesitate to "kill" [deleted] for failing to awaken. Miss [deleted] carried out these suggestions to the letter including firing the (unloaded) gun at [deleted] and then proceeding to fall into a deep sleep. After proper suggestions were made, both were awakened and expressed complete amnesia for the entire sequence. Miss [deleted] was again handed the gun, which she refused (in an awakened state) to pick up or accept form the operator. She expressed absolute denial that the foregoing sequence had happened." P. 36, 37
MKULTRA was divided into 149 Subprojects. One group of Subprojects involved the development and testing of mind control drugs. The goal was to identify compounds which would assist in interrogation and in the creation of amnesia. The CIA sponsored LSD research through MKULTRA. It also financed LSD conferences and books. An undated document entitled "D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LDS-25)," states "Some of the more outstanding effects are the mental confusion, helplessness, and extreme anxiety which are produced by minute doses of this substance. Based upon these reactions, its potential use in offensive psychological warfare
and in interrogation is considerable. It may become one of the most important psychochemical agents." P. 47, 51, 54, 73
Unethical practice by physicians and the direct involvement of pharmaceutical companies are part of the history of hallucinogens. Under TOP SECRET clearance, Eli Lilly Company was given a $400,000 grant in 1953 to manufacture and supply LSD to the CIA. Army LSD research was ongoing in 1977 when LSD was a controlled substance. At least 1,500 soldiers were given LSD without informed consent as part of Army mind control experiments. These facts have never been subject to ethical review or any policy or position statement by any medical organization. P. 52, 53, 68, 73
Frank Olson was a Fort Detrick biological warfare expert who committed suicide in 1953 after being given LSD hidden in liqueur by Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, Director of MKULTRA. Olson‟s family determined that he had committed suicide subsequent to a bad LSD trip only after reading Nelson Rockefeller‟s 1975 report on the CIA, published 22 years after Olsen‟s death. They were given $750,000 in compensation by Congress. P. 49
Biological warfare (BW) and chemical warfare (CW) research involved testing in many locations. CW research involved releasing bacteria and viruses into general population areas. The bacterium Serratia marascens was released in New York (June 1966), San Francisco (September 1950), and Pennsylvania (January 1955). A paper in the Archives of Internal Medicine describes eleven Serratia marascens infections seen in one San Francisco hospital between September 1950 and February 1951. The paper was published because Serratia marascens infections are very rare. P. 68, 69
MKULTRA Subproject 35 involved funding the construction of the Gorman Annex at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC. The total budget for the Annex of $1.25 million was to provide a hospital safe house for mind control research. One sixth of the space was set aside for the CIA, which placed three biochemists there under cover. P. 55
Another group of Subprojects consists of experiments and research on non-chemical mind control. This group of Subprojects is about one quarter of the total MKULTRA Subprojects. It involves most of the contractors with unwitting status. Unwitting contractors are ones who do not realize that the research money is from the CIA because it has been funneled through a cutout or front organization. By and large, the psychologists and sociologists were unwitting contractors, while the physicians, chemists, and the biologists had TOP SECRET clearance and were aware that they were working for the CIA. In CIA terminology, these people were witting. P. 54
Like the Tuskeegee Syphilis Study and the radiation research, MKULTRA involved direct experimentation on children without informed consent being given by their parents or guardians. In the case of the Tuskeegee Study, children were harmed by preventable congenital syphilis. In the radiation experiments, they were harmed through direct expose after birth or in utero exposure during experiments on their mothers. [25] Four of the MKULTRA Subprojects involved research on children. The deliberate creation of multiple personality in children is an explicitly stated plan in the MKULTRA Subproject Proposal submitted for funding on May 30, 1961. P. 56, 61
The Mind Control Doctors – Dr. Ewen Cameron
Throughout the 20th century, academic psychiatry provided no public commentary, ethical guidance, or moral oversight concerning mind control experimentation, despite the fact that the leading psychiatrists and medical schools were well funded by the CIA and military for mind control research. Mental patients, cancer patients, and unwitting citizens were experimented on by mind control doctors at Yale, Harvard, McGill, Stanford, UCLA, and other major universities. P. 126
These human guinea pigs were never told that they were subjects in military and CIA mind control experiments, and they never gave informed consent. They received no systematic follow-up to document the harm done to them. The welfare of the "human subjects" was not a relevant variable in the academic equation." The mind control doctors saw their patients as biological machines, a view which made them sub-human, and therefore easier to abuse in mind control experiments. P. 91, 126
The MKULTRA contractor about whom the most has been written is Dr. Ewen Cameron. [26][27][28][29][30][31][32] Cameron began conducting unethical and inhumane brainwashing experiments at Brandon mental Hospital in the 1930‟s. Schizophrenic patients were forced to lie naked in red light for eight hours a day for periods as long as eight months. Another experiment involved overheating patients in an electric cage until their body temperatures reached 102 degrees. P. 125 - 128
Dr. Cameron massively over-utilized coma therapy by putting patients in coma for 2 to 5 hours per day for up to 50 days in a row. At various times, Dr. Cameron was President of the Quebec, Canadian, American, and World Psychiatric Associations. He was one of four co-founders of the World Psychiatric Association. P. 126 -129
In a paper published in the American Journal of Psychiatry entitled "Psychic Driving," Dr. Cameron [33] describes his brainwashing techniques. Psychic driving was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, patients were depatterned, which meant reduced to a vegetable state through a combination of massive amounts of electroconvulsive shock, drug-induced sleep and sensory isolation. When fully depatterned, patients were incontinent of urine and feces, unable to feed themselves, and unable to state their name, location, or the date. P. 129
In the second stage, psychic driving was introduced. This consisted of hundreds of hours of tape loops being played to the patient through earphones, special helmets, or speakers in the sensory isolation room. Dr. Cameron received a grant from Canada‟s Department of Health and Welfare for $57,750 for the years 1961 to 1964 for "A Study of Factors Which Promote or Retard Personality Change in Individuals Exposed to Prolonged Repetition of Verbal Signals." P. 129, 131
Linda MacDonald was a victim of Dr. Cameron‟s unethical, destructive mind control experiments between May 1 and Sept. 12, 1963. Cameron used a "treatment" which involved intensive application of three brainwashing techniques; drug disinhibition, prolonged sleep treatment, and prolonged psychological isolation. These were combined with ECT [Electro Convulsive Therapy] treatments. The amount of electricity introduced into Linda‟s brain exceeded by 76.5 times the
maximum amount recommended in the ECT Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association. P. 181-182
Dr. Cameron proved that doctors skilled in the right procedures can erase a subject‟s memory. His depattering technique resulted in permanent and complete amnesia. To this day, Linda MacDonald is unable to remember anything from her birth to 1963. As recorded by nurses in her chart, Linda was reduced to a vegetable state. She was completely disoriented. She didn‟t know her name, age or where she was. She didn‟t recognize her children. She couldn‟t read, drive, cook, or use a toilet. Not only did she not know her husband, she didn‟t even know what a husband was. P. 182-183
There is a connection to politics, power, and weapons in Linda MacDonald‟s life. Her husband worked for the Canadian Armament Research Development Establishment. His immediate boss was a man who sold arms to Saddam Hussein. His boss was also tied into the Iran-Contra affair, and was murdered in Europe a few years ago. P. 186
Life changed for Linda when the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation program, The Fifth Estate, aired a segment on Dr. Cameron on January 17, 1984. A Vancouver newspaper ran a full-page story on Robert Loggie, a Vancouver man who had been experimented on by Dr. Cameron. Loggie was a plaintiff in the class action suit against the CIA for Dr. Cameron‟s MKULTRA experiments, which was settled out of court for $750,000, divided among the eight plaintiffs. P. 187
Linda‟s mother phoned her about the program. Linda shook a lot in reaction to the news and didn‟t know what to do. Through a reporter she got in touch with a Washington lawyer representing the eight Canadian plaintiffs. He advised Linda that she could not be a party to the class action suit against the CIA because she was „treated‟ by Dr. Cameron after his CIA funding had stopped. The Canadian government had picked up the funding by 1963. Eventually she got $100,000 plus legal fees from the Canadian government. P. 187, 188
The fact that Dr. Cameron‟s unethical, inhumane, and grossly damaging experiments were published in the psychiatric literature [34][35][36] is a condemnation of the editorial standards of the journals, not a vindication of Dr. Cameron. P. 132
Dr. G. H. Estabrooks
G.H. Estabrooks is the only mind control doctor who has publicly acknowledged the building of Manchurian Candidates. In his book Spiritism, [37] Dr. Estabrooks describes experiments done to create multiple personality by military psychiatrist Dr. P.L. Harriman. [38][39][40] In his book Hypnotism, [41] Dr. Estabrooks states that the creation of experimental multiple personality for operational use in military subjects, whom he refers to as super spies, is ethical because of the demands of war. P. 159, 162
He comments in a chapter entitled "Hypnotism in Warfare" that: "the hand of the military must not be tied by any silly prejudices in the minds of the general public. War is the end of all law. In
the last analysis any device is justifiable which enables us to protect ourselves from defeat." P. 162
In a May 13, 1968 article in the Providence Evening Bulletin, [42] Estabrooks is described as a former consultant for the FBI and CIA, and is quoted as saying that, "the key to creating an effective spy or assassin rests in splitting a man‟s personality, or creating multipersonality, with the aid of hypnotism. This is not science fiction. This has and is being done. I have done it." P. 162
Dr. Estabrooks‟ proposal to the CIA dated June 22, 1954 states: "In deep hypnosis the subject, military or civilian, can be given a message to be delivered to say Colonel X in Berlin. The message will be perfectly safe because the subject will have no memory in the waking state as to the message. It can be arranged that the subject will have no knowledge of ever having been hypnotized. It can be arranged that no one beside Colonel X in Berlin can hypnotize the subject and recover the message….I will take a number of men and will establish in them through the use of hypnotism the condition of split personality. Consciously they will be ardent Communists, fanatical adherents to the party line. Unconsciously they will be loyal Americans determined to thwart the Communists at every turn. These men will have no knowledge of ever having been hypnotized, and can only be hypnotized by such persons as the original operator may choose. Consciously they will associate with the Communists and learn all their plans. Once every month they, as loyal Americans, will tell what they know. This sounds unbelievable, but I assure you, it will work." P. 163, 165
In a 1971 article in Science Digest, Dr. Estabrooks [43] claimed to have created hypnotic couriers and counterintelligence agents for operational use: "The „hypnotic courier‟ provides a unique solution. I was involved in preparing army subjects during World War II. One successful case involved an Army Captain. He was an excellent subject but did not realize it. I removed from him, by post hypnotic suggestion, all recollection of ever having been hypnotized. I put him under deep hypnosis, and gave him – orally – a vital message to be delivered directly on his arrival in Japan to a certain colonel – let‟s say his name was Brown – of military intelligence. Outside of myself, Colonel Brown was the only person who could hypnotize Captain Smith. This is „locking.‟ I performed it by saying to the captain, „We will use the phrase „the moon is clear.' Whenever you hear this phrase from Brown or myself you will pass instantly into deep hypnosis.‟ When Captain Smith re-awakened, he had no conscious memory of what happened in trance. The system is virtually foolproof." P. 167, 168
By the 1920‟s not only had [clinical hypnotists] learned to apply posthypnotic suggestion, but also had learned to split certain complex individuals into multiple personalities like Jeckyl-Hydes. During World War II, I worked this technique with a vulnerable Marine lieutenant I‟ll call Jones. I split his personality into Jones A and Jones B. Jones A, once a "normal" working Marine, became entirely different. He talked communist doctrine and meant it. He was welcomed enthusiastically by communist cells, and was deliberately given a dishonorable discharge by the Corps and became a card-carrying party member. Jones B was the deeper personality, knew all the thoughts of Jones A, was a loyal American and was "imprinted" to say nothing during conscious phases. All I had to do was hypnotize the whole man, get in touch with Jones B, the loyal American, and I had a pipeline straight into the Communist camp. It worked beautifully for months." P. 169
Dr. Estabrooks did experiments on children. He corresponded with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover about using hypnosis to interrogate juvenile delinquents. His experimentation on children raises
the possibility that investigators have attempted to create Manchurian Candidates in children. Such a possibility might seem far-fetched until one considers the LSD, biological and radiation experiments conducted on children, the fact that four MKULTRA Subprojects were on children, and that hypnotic subjects described in the CIA documents include girls 19 years of age. P. 176, 177
Other Mind Control Doctors
Dr. Harold Wolff, a Professor of Medicine at Cornell, was a director of the CIA cutout [front organization], The Human Ecology Foundation, and the investigator of MKULTRA Subproject 61. Dr. Wolff‟s accomplishments include being President of the American Neurological Association and editor of Archives of Neurology. [44] P. 85
Dr. Martin Orne [45][46] is one of the leading experts on hypnosis of the 20th century. For about 30 years, he was the editor of The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. He is one of two psychiatrists professionally active into the late 1990‟s who is a documented CIA mind control contractor, along with Dr. Louis Jolyon West. [47] Dr. West, who killed an elephant with LSD [48] at Oklahoma City Zoo, had TOP SECRET clearance with the CIA and military. P. 81, 121, 124
Dr. William Sweet [49] participated in both brain electrode implant experiments and the injection of uranium into medical patients at Harvard University. The 925-page Final Report. Advisory Committee on Human radiation Experiments tells the story of the radiation experiments, and their linkage to mind control. [50] P. 1
Brain Implants
A CIA memorandum for MKULTRA Subproject 142 describes the control of animals through stimulation of brain electrodes. The overall goal was clear; to control the mind and behavior, and to create dissociation through a combination of drugs, hypnosis, brain electrode implants, electric shock, and beaming different kinds of energy at the brain. The ability to create limited, controlled amnesia through a variety of methods was a primary goal of the mind control programs. P. 87
Brain electrode experiments were also conducted in humans. Dr. Jose Delgado, [51][52][53][54][55][56][57] a neurosurgeon and professor at Yale, received funding for brain electrode research on children and adults. He was able to control the movements of his animal and human subjects by pushing buttons on a remote transmitter box. In one paper, Dr. Delgado describes the cats as "mechanical toys." P. 87-89
An 11-year old boy underwent a partial change of identity upon remote stimulation of his brain electrode: [58] "Electrical stimulation of the superior temporal convolution induced feminine striving and confusion about his own sexual identity. The patient, an 11-year-old boy, said, „I was thinking whether I was a boy or a girl, which I‟d like to be,‟ and „I‟d like to be a girl.‟ After one of the stimulations the patient suddenly began to discuss his desire to get married to the male interviewer. P. 89
Temporal-lobe stimulation produced in another patient open manifestations and declarations of pleasure, accompanied by giggles and joking with the therapist. In two adult female patients stimulation of the same region was followed by discussion of marriage and expression of a wish to marry the therapist. P. 89
Brain electrode research was also conducted independently at Harvard by Dr. Delgado‟s coauthors, Drs. Vernon Mark, Frank Ervin, and William Sweet. Mark and Ervin describe implanting brain electrodes in a large number of patients at Harvard hospitals. A patient named Jennie was 14 years old when they put electrodes in her brain. In Mark and Ervin‟s Violence and the Brain, [59] photographs show 18-year old Julia smiling, angry, or pounding the wall depending on which button is being pushed on the transmitter box sending signals to her brain electrodes. P. 89-91
Dr. Heath, [60][61][62] Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry and Neurology at Tulane University, placed brain electrodes in a young homosexual man and fitted him with a box. A button on the box could be used to electrically stimulate an electrode implanted in the septal region of his brain, a pleasure center. During one three-our period, the patient, referred to as B-19, stimulated himself 1,500 times. [63] "During these sessions, B-19 stimulated himself to a point that he was experiencing an almost overwhelming euphoria and elation, and had to be disconnected, despite his vigorous protests. P. 94
Non-lethal Weapons
Non-lethal weapons is a broad category which includes devices for beaming various kinds of energy at human targets in order to temporarily incapacitate them, or to control or affect their behavior. Non-lethal weapons research has been conducted at universities in the US on contract to the CIA, and has overlapped with research on hallucinogens and brain electrode implants. Funding of the experiments began in MKULTRA. P. 103
Subproject 62 documents "certain kinds of radio frequency energy have been found to effect reversible neurological changes in chimpanzees." Subproject 54 was studying how to produce concussions from a distance using mechanical blast waves propagated through the air. The contractor says that such a concussion "is always followed by amnesia for the actual moment of the accident." He also states: "The blast duration would be in the order of a tenth of a second. Masking of a noise of this duration should not be difficult. It would be advantageous to establish the effectiveness of both of the above methods as a tool in brain-wash therapy." P. 104, 105
MKULTRA Subproject 119 was a literature review which included a summary of existing information on "Techniques of activation of the human organism by remote electronic means." According to a report in Defense Electronics, [64] consideration was given to using non-lethal weapons technology on David Koresh during the Branch Davidian siege in the spring of 1993. P. 105
Research on the ability of magnetic fields to facilitate the creation of false memories and altered states of consciousness is apparently funded by the Defense Intelligence Agency through the project cryptonym SLEEPING BEAUTY. "Sleeping Beauty was a Defense Department study of remote microwave min-influencing techniques." [65] P. 116
There is abundant evidence in the public domain [66] that non-lethal weapons research is ongoing and funded annually in the tens of millions of dollars or more. Given the fact that chemical and biological weapons, mind control drugs and radiation have been tested on unwitting civilian populations, it is possible that non-lethal weapons have been tested on unwitting civilians. P 106.
A memorandum from Richard Helms, [67] Acting Deputy Director to Allen Dulles, Director of the CIA dated 3 April 1953 and entitled "Two Extremely Sensitive Research Programs" (MKULTRA and MKDELTA) includes the statement, "Even internally in CIA, as few individuals as possible should be aware of our interest in these fields and of the identity of those who are working for us. At present this results in ridiculous contracts, often with cut-outs [front organizations], which do not spell out the scope or intent of the work. Complete Government audits of such contracts are impossible for the same reason." P. 125
To order Bluebird, and to get more information on mind control and other major cover-ups, see our Resource List. For other reliable resources on mind control, visit our mind control information center. We share this information as an invitation to work together for a better world. By inspiring others to join us in spreading the word, we can create a critical mass of people who demand that these activities be brought back under Congressional control.
[1] Condon, R. The Manchurian Candidate. New York: Jove Books, 1959/1988. To order this book, click here.
[2] American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994
[3] Hunt, L. Secret Agenda. The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945 to 1990. New York: St. Martin‟s Press, 1991. To order this book, click here.
[4] Simpson, C. Blowback. The First Full Account of America’s Recruitment of Nazis, and the Disastrous Effect on Our Domestic and Foreign Policy. New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988. To order this book, click here.
[5] Simpson, C. The Splendid Blonde Beast. Money, Law, and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. New York: Grove Press, 1993. To order this book, click here.
[6] Jones, J.H. Bad Blood. New York: The Free Press, 1981
[7] Vonderlehr, R.A., Clark, T., Wenger, O.C. & Heller, J.R. Untreated syphilis in the male Negro. A comparative study of treated and untreated cases. Journal of the American Medical Association, 107, 856-859, 1936
[8] Rockwell, D.H., Yobs, A.R., & Moore, M.B. The Tuskeegee study of untreated syphilis. The 30th year of observation. Archives of Internal Medicine, 114, 792-798, 1964.
[9] Budiansky, S., Goode, E.E., & Gest, T. The cold war experiments. US News and World Report, January 24, 1994, pp. 32-38
[10] Faden, R.R. Final Report. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1995. The full report is available on the Department of Energy Website at: http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/achre/index.html.
[11] Watson, R. Glick, D., Hosenball, M., McCormick, J. Murr, A., Begley, S., Miller, S., Carroll, G., & Keene-Osborn, S. America‟s nuclear secrets. Newsweek, December 27, 1993, pp. 14-18.
[12] Krugman, S. Giles, J.P., & Hammond, J. Infectious hepatitis. Evidence for two distinctive clinical, epidemiological, and immunological types of infection. Journal of the American Medical Association, 200, 365-373, 1967
[13] Condon, R. The Manchurian Candidate. New York: Jove Books, 1959/1988. Order here.
[14] Marks, J. The Search for the Manchurian Candidate. New York: W.W. Norton, 1988. To order this book, click here.
[15] CIA MORI ID 190684, pp. 1, 4. This is a declassified CIA mind control document. To verify the statement in the text, use the FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) request as described above. You should receive the mind control CDs within a month of your request. Upon receiving them, look up the MORI ID and page numbers listed. For free, unlimited access to these revealing documents, visit our archive of declassified mind control documents. To go directly to the CIA document quoted, for page 1, click here. For page 4, click here.
[16] CIA MORI ID 190527, pp. 1, 2. This is a declassified CIA mind control document. To verify the statement in the text, use the FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) request as described above. You should receive the government mind control CDs within a month of your request. Once you receive them, look up the MORI ID number listed. For free, unlimited access to these documents, visit our archive of declassified mind control documents. To go directly to the above document, for page 1, click here. For page 2, click here.
[17] Bowart, W. Operation Mind Control. New York: W.W. Norton, 1978
[18] Collins, A. In the Sleep Room. The Story of CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1988/1998. To order this book, click here.
[19] Gillmor, D. I Swear By Apollo. Dr. Ewen Cameron and the CIA-Brainwashing Experiments. Montreal: Eden press, 1987. To order this book, click here.
[20] Lee, M., & Shlain, B. Acid Dreams. The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1985.
[21] Marks, J. The Search for the Manchurian Candidate. New York: W.W. Norton, 1988. To order this book, click here.
[22] Scheflin, A.W., & Opton, E.M. The Mind manipulators. New York: Paddington Press, 1978. To order this book, click here.
[23] Thomas, G. Journey into Madness. The Secret Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse. New York: Bantam, 1989 (paperback 1990). To order this book, click here.
[24] CIA MORI ID 190691, p. 1. This is a declassified CIA mind control document. To verify the statement, use the FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) request as described above. You should receive the government mind control CDs within a month of your request. Upon receipt, look up the MORI ID number listed. For free, unlimited access to these documents, visit our archive of declassified mind control documents. To go directly to the page with the CIA document quoted, click here.
[25] Faden, R.R. Final Report. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1995. The full report on the Department of Energy Website is available here.
[26] Collins, A. In the Sleep Room. The Story of CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1988/1998. To order this book, click here.
[27] Gillmor, D. I Swear By Apollo. Dr. Ewen Cameron and the CIA-Brainwashing Experiments. Montreal: Eden press, 1987. To order this book, click here.
[28] Marks, J. The Search for the Manchurian Candidate. New York: W.W. Norton, 1988. To order this book, click here.
[29] Nickson, E. The Monkey Puzzle Tree. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.
[30] Scheflin, A.W., & Opton, E.M. The Mind manipulators. New York: Paddington Press, 1978. To order this book, click here.
[31] Thomas, G. Journey into Madness. The Secret Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse. New York: Bantam, 1989 (paperback 1990). To order this book, click here.
[32] Weinstein, H. Psychiatry and the CIA: Victims of Mind Control. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1990. To order this book, click here.
[33] Cameron, D.E. Psychic driving. American Journal of Psychiatry, 112, 502-509, 1956.
[34] Cameron, D.E. Production of differential amnesia as a factor in the treatment of schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1, 26-34, 1960.
[35] Cameron, D.E., Lohrenz, J.G., & Handcock, K.A. The depatterning treatment of schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 3, 65-76, 1962.
[36] Cameron, D.E., Levy, L. Rubenstein, L., & Malmo, R.B. Repetition of verbal signals: Behavioral and physiological changes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 985-991, 1959
[37] Estabrooks, G.H. Spiritism. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1947.
[38] Harriman, P.L The experimental induction of a multiple personality. Psychiatry, 5, 179-186, 1942.
[39] Harriman, P.L The experimental production of some phenomena related to multiple personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 37, 244-255,1942.
[40] Harriman, P.L A new approach to multiple personalities. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 13, 638-643, 1943.
[41] Estabrooks, G.H. Spiritism. New York: E.M Dutton, 1947. To order this book, click here.
[42] Bender, L. Children‟s reactions to psychotomimetic drugs. In D.H. Efron (Ed.), Psychotomimetic Drugs, pp.265-271. New York: Raven Press, 1970.
[43] Estabrooks, G.H. Hypnosis comes of age. Science Digest, 44-50, April 1971.An excerpt of this article is available here.
[44] Plum, F. Harold G.Wolff 1898-1962. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 135, 283-285, 1962.
[45] Marks, J. The Search for the Manchurian Candidate. New York: W.W. Norton, 1988. To order this book, click here.
[46] Orne, M.T. The potential uses of hypnosis in interrogation. In A.D. Biderman (Ed.), The Manipulation of Human Behavior (pp. 169-215). New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1961. Order here.
[47] West, L.J. Dissociative reactions. In A.M. Freedman & H.I. Kaplan (Eds.), Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, pp. 885-889. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1967. Order here.
[48] West, L.J., Pierce, C.M., & Thomas, W.D. Lysergic acid diethylamide: Its effects on male Asiatic elephant. Science, 138, 1100-1103, 1962
[49] Mark, V.H., Ervin, F.R. Violence and the Brain. New York: Harper & Row, 1970. To order this book, click here.
[50] Faden, R.R. Final Report. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Wash, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1995. For the full report on the Department of Energy Website click here. For the two pages detailing Dr. Sweet's experiments: Chapter five page 4, and page 5.
[51] Delgado, J.M.R. Evaluation of permanent implantation of electrodes within the brain. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 7, 637-644, 1955. To order, click here.
[52] Delgado, J.M.R. Electronic command of movement and behavior. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, 21, 689-699, 1959.
[53] Delgado, J.M.R. Prolonged stimulation of brain in awake monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology, 22, 458-475, 1959.
[54] Delgado, J.M.R. Emotional behavior in animals and humans. Psychiatric Research Reports, 12, 259-266, 1960
[55] Delgado, J.M.R. Social rank and radio-stimulated aggressiveness in monkeys. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 144, 383-390, 1967. To order, click here.
[56] Delgado, J.M.R. Physical Control of the Mind. New York: Harper & Row, 1971 (paperback 1977). To order this book, click here.
[57] Rosvold, H.E., & Delgado, J.M.R. The effect of delayed-alternation test performance of stimulating or destroying electrical structures within the frontal lobes of the monkey‟s brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 49, 365-372, 1956.
[58] Delgado, J.M., Mark, V., Sweet, W., Ervin, F., Weiss, G., Bach-Y-Rita, G., & Hagiwara, R. Intracerebral radio stimulation and recording in completely free patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 147, 329-340, 1968.
[59] Mark, V.H., Ervin, F.R. Violence and the Brain. New York: Harper & Row, 1970. To order this book, click here.
[60] Heath, R.G. Electrical self-stimulation of the brain in man. American Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 571-577, 1963
[61] Heath, R.G. Pleasure and brain activity in man. Deep and surface electroencephalograms during orgasm. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 151, 3-18, 1972.
[62] Heath, R.G., John, S.B. & Fontana, C.J. Stereotaxic implantation of electrodes in the human brain: A method for long-term study and treatment. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 23, 296-304, 1976.
[63] Moan, C.E., & Heath, R.G. Septal stimulation for the initiation of heterosexual activity in a homosexual male. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 3, 23-30, 1972.
[64] Tapscott, M. DOD, intel agencies look at Russian mind control technology, claims. Defense Electronics, July 13, 1993, pp. 17.
[65] Schnabel, J. Remote Viewers: The Secret History of America’s Psychic Spies. New York: Dell, 1997
[66] Pasternak, D. Wonder weapons. US News and World Report, July 7, 1997, pp. 38-46
[67] Memorandum from ADDP Helms to DCI Dulles, dated 3 April 1953, Tab A, pp. 1-2 (p. 30 on CDs), CIA MORI ID 17748. This is a declassified CIA mind control document. To verify the statement in the text, use the FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) request as described above. You should receive the government mind control CDs within a month of your request. Once you receive them, look up the MORI ID number listed. For free access to these documents, visit our archive of declassified mind control documents. To go directly to the CIA document quoted, for page 30, click here. For page 32, click here. For page 33, click here. For page 34, click

Hypnosis Comes of Age, Dr George Estabrooks

by G. H. Estabrooks, PH.D.
Science Digest April, 1971, pp. 44 - 50
This psychologist reminisces about his long career as a hypnotist: how he "programmed" American spies with hypnosis: how he helped businessmen and students with his skills.
Dr. Estabrooks is a Rhodes Scholar. He took his Doctorate at Harvard ('26), and has authored many articles and books on clinical hypnosis and human behavior.
This excerpt details Dr. Estabrooks work with Military intelligence during and after WWII.
....One of the most fascinating but dangerous applications of hypnosis is its use in military intelligence. This is a field with which I am familiar though formulating guide lines for the techniques used by the United States in two world wars.
Communication in war is always a headache. Codes can be broken. A professional spy may or may not stay bought. Your own man may have unquestionable loyalty, but his judgment is always open to question.
The "hypnotic courier," on the other hand, provides a unique solution. I was involved in preparing many subjects for this work during World War II. One successful case involved an Army Service Corps Captain whom we''l call George Smith.
Captain Smith had undergone months of training. He was an excellent subject but did not realize it. I had removed from him, by post-hypnotic suggestion, all recollection of ever having been hypnotized.
First I had the Service Corps call the captain to Washington and tell him they needed a report of the mechanical equipment of Division X headquartered in Tokyo. Smith was ordered to leave by jet next morning, pick up the report and return at once. Consciously, that was all he knew, and it was the story he gave to his wife and friends.
Then I put him under deep hypnosis, and gave him -- orally -- a vital message to be delivered directly on his arrival in Japan to a certain colonel -- let's say his name was Brown -- of military intelligence. Outside of myself, Colonel Brown was the only person who could hypnotize Captain Smith. This is "locking." I performed it by saying to the hypnotized Captain: "Until further orders from me, only Colonel Brown and I can hypnotize you. We will use a signal
phrase 'the moon is clear.' Whenever you hear this phrase from Brown or myself you will pass instantly into deep hypnosis." When Captain Smith re-awakened, he had no conscious memory or what happened in trance. All that he was aware of was that he must head for Tokyo to pick up a division report.
On arrival there, Smith reported to Brown, who hypnotized him with the signal phrase. Under hypnosis, Smith delivered my message and received one to bring back. Awakened, he was given the division report and returned home by jet. There I hypnotized him once more with the signal phrase, and he spieled off Brown's answer that had been dutifully tucked away in his unconscious mind.
The system is virtually foolproof. As exemplified by this case, the information was "locked" in Smith's unconscious for retrieval by the only two people who knew the combination. The subject had no conscious memory of what happened, so could not spill the beans. No one else could hypnotize him even iv they might know the signal phrase.
Not all applications of hypnotism to military intelligence are a tidy as that. Perhaps you have read _The Three Faces of Eve.__ The book was based on a case reported in 1905 by Dr. Morton Prince of Massachusetts general Hospital and Harvard. he startled everyone in the field by announcing that he had cured a woman named Beauchamp of a split personality problem. Using post-hypnotic suggestion to submerge an incompatible, childlike facet of the patient, he'd been able to make two other sides of Mrs. Beauchamp compatible, and lump them together in a single cohesive personality. Clinical hypnotists throughout the world jumped on the multiple personality bandwagon as a fascinating frontier. By the 1920's, not only had they learned to apply post-hypnotic suggestion to deal with this weird problem, but also had learned how to split certain complex individuals into multiple personalities like Jeckyl-Hydes.
The potential for military intelligence has been nightmarish. During World War II, I worked this technique with a vulnerable Marine lieutenant I'll call Jones. Under the watchful eye of Marine Intelligence I spilt his personality into Jones A and Jones B. Jones A, once a "normal" working Marine, became entirely different. He talked communist doctrine and meant it. He was welcomed enthusiastically by communist cells, was deliberately given a dishonorable discharge by the Corps (which was in on the plot) and became a car-carrying party member.
The joker was Jones B, the second personality, formerly apparent in the conscious Marine. Under hypnosis, this Jones had been carefully coached by suggestion. Jones B was the deeper personality, knew all the thoughts of Jones A, was a loyal American, and was "imprinted" to say nothing during conscious phases.
All I had to do was hypnotize the whole man, get in touch with Jones B, the loyal American, and I had a pipeline straight into the Communist camp. It worked beautifully for months with this subject, but the technique backfired. While there was no way for an enemy to expose Jones' dual personality, they suspected it and played the same trick on us later.
The use of "waking hypnosis" in counter intelligence during World War II occasionally became so involved that it taxed even my credulity. Among the most complicated ploys used was the
practice of sending perfectly normal, wide awake agent into enemy camp, after he'd been carefully coached in waking hypnosis to _act_ the part of a potential hypnotism subject. Trained in auto-suggestion, or self-hypnosis, such a subject can pass every test used to spot a hypnotized person. Using it, he can control the rate of his heartbeat, anesthetize himself to a degree against pain of electric shock or torture.
In the case of an officer we'll call Cox, this carefully prepared counterspy was given a title to indicate he had access to top priority information. He was planted in an international cafe in a border country where it was certain there would be enemy agents. He talked too much, drank a lot, made friends with local girls, and pretended a childish interest in hypnotism. The hope was that he would blunder into a situation where enemy agents would kidnap him and try to hypnotize him, in order to extract information from him.
Cox worked so well that they fell for the trick. he never allowed himself to be hypnotized during seances. While pretending to be a hypnotized subject of the foe, he was gathering and feeding back information.
Eventually, Cox did get caught, when he was followed to an information "drop." And this international group plays rough. The enemy offered him a "ride" at gunpoint. There were four men in the vehicle. Cox watched for a chance, and found it when the car skirted a ravine. he leaped for the wheel, twisted it, and over the edge they went. Two of his guards were killed in the crash. In the ensuing scramble, he got hold of another man's gun, liquidated the remaining two, then hobbled across the border with nothing worse than a broken leg.
So much for the dark side.....
Back to "BIBLIOGRAPHY" Back to "History of MK-Ultra"

US Govt Human Experimentation Rpt GAO

United States General Accounting Office
Before the Legislation and National Security Subcommittee,
Committee on Government Operations, House of
For Release on Delivery
Expected at
l&O0 a.m. EST
September 28.1994
Human Experimentation
An Overview on Co1d.Wa.r
Era Programs
Statement of Frank C. Conahan, Assistant Comptroller General,
National Security and International Affairs Division
Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee:
We are pleased to be here today to discuss the use of humans in
tests and experiments conducted for national security purposes by
the Department of Defense (DOD) and other agencies between 1940 and
1974. As you requested, we collected information on the scope of
these experiments and their possible impact. We obtained
information on (1) the magnitude and scope of human subject
experimentation, (2) the potential effects of the experiments on
human subjects, (3) government efforts to assist those who may have
been injured or suffered adverse health effects as a result of the
tests or experiments, and (4) measures to ensure that informed
consent is secured and that volunteers are protected in governmentsponsored
As you requested, we focused our work on defense-affiliated
programs that used human test subjects between 1940 and 1974.
The programs included tests and experiments conducted or sponsored
by the Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force; the
Defense Nuclear Agency; the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA); the
Department of Energy; and the Department of Health and Human
Services. The tests and experiments involved radiological,
chemical, and biological research and were conducted to support
weapon development programs, identify methods to protect the health
of military personnel against a variety of diseases and combat
conditions, and analyze U.S. defense vulnerabilities.
During World War II and the Cold War era, DOD and other national
security agencies conducted or sponsored extensive radiological,
chemical, and biological research programs. Precise information on
the number of tests, experiments, and participants is not
available, and the exact numbers may never be known. However, we
have identified hundreds of radiological, chemical, and biological
tests and experiments in which hundreds of thousands of people were
used as test subjects. These tests and experiments often involved
hazardous substances such as radiation, blister and nerve agents,
biological agents, and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). In some
cases, basic safeguards to protect people were either not in place
or not followed. For example, some tests and experiments were
conducted in secret; others involved the use of people without
their knowledge or consent or their full knowledge of the risks
The effects of the tests and experiments are often difficult to
determine. Although some participants suffered immediate acute
injuries, and some died, in other cases adverse health problems
were not discovered until many years later--often 20 to 30 years or
Federal programs provide benefits to former military and federal
civilian employees who suffer from injuries or adverse health
effects as a result of federal service. However, it has proven
difficult for participants in government tests and experiments
between 1940 and 1974 to pursue claims because little centralized
information is available to prove participation or determine
whether adverse health effects resulted from the testing. To
address these problems, special efforts have been made by some
involved agencies to help groups of test participants obtain the
information necessary to pursue claims. For example, the
Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) relaxed its requirement that
participants link their health problems to those tests or
experiments. Also, since 1978 DOD has had a program to identify
and provide information to participants in atmospheric nuclear
tests that were conducted between the 1940s and 1960s. More
recently, in January 1994, the administration established an
advisory committee to identify participants in other governmentsponsored
radiation research. We are reviewing the efforts of the
committee at the request of the Senate Committee on Governmental
In other areas, however, special efforts to make information
available on test participants are not as far along. For example,
DOD recently recognized a need to identify and assist participants
in chemical tests conducted prior to 1968, but to date limited
resources have been applied. We were told earlier this month that
the VA continues to have difficulty processing claims because it
cannot obtain necessary information from DOD. Some participants or
their survivors have pursed benefits or compensation, outside
existing federal programs, through specific congressional action or
court awards.
Although military regulations in effect as early as 1953 generally
required that volunteers be informed of the nature and foreseeable
risks of the studies in which they participated, this did not
always occur. Some participants have testified that they were not
informed about the test risks. Government testing and
experimentation with human subjects continues today because of its
importance to national security agencies. For example, the Army's
Medical Research Institute for Infectious Disease uses volunteers
in its tests of new vaccines for malaria, hepatitis, and other
exotic diseases. Since 1974, federal regulations have become more
protective of research subjects and, in general, require (1) the
formation of institutional review boards and procedures and
(2) researchers to obtain informed consent from human subjects and
ensure that their participation is voluntary and based on knowledge
of the potential risks and benefits. We are in the process of
reviewing the effectiveness of these measures. A National
Institutes of Health official has stated that no mechanism exists
to ensure implementation of the key federal policies in this area.
Precise information on the scope and magnitude of government tests
and experiments involving human subjects is not available, and
exact numbers may never be known. However, our review of available
documentation and interviews with agency officials identified
hundreds of tests and experiments in which hundreds of thousands of
people were used as subjects. Some of these tests and experiments
involved the intentional exposure of people to hazardous substances
such as radiation, blister and nerve agents, biological agents,
LSD, and phencyclidine (PCP). These tests and experiments were
conducted to support weapon development programs, identify methods
to protect the health of military personnel against a variety of
diseases and combat conditions, and analyze U.S. defense
vulnerabilities. Healthy adults, children, psychiatric patients,
and prison inmates were used in these tests and experiments.
Documenting the precise number of tests and participants is
difficult because government information is incomplete. Some
records have been lost or destroyed, and existing documentation
contains limited information and often does not identify names of
participants. Moreover, these records are spread throughout the
country at the National Archives, Federal Record Centers, other
government offices, and the military commands or organizational
units that created them. Some of the records measure thousands of
linear feet, and the availability and quality of indexes to the
records vary widely.
I will describe a few of the radiological, chemical, and biological
research projects that illustrate the scope and magnitude of
governmental experimentation.
Radioloqical Tests and Experiments
To date, over 200 radiation tests and experiments have been
identified involving over 210,000 test participants.
involved in a test or experiment,
Although not
exposed to radiation through work.
another 199,000 people were
This latter group is of concern
because the effects of the exposure are the same as those incurred
by test participants. The radiation tests are generally recognized
as involving the largest number of test participants.
The largest known test program was the atmospheric nuclear test
program conducted from 1945 to 1962. The purpose of this program
was to develop weapons and to gain a better understanding of the
tactical effect on troops. Over this 17-year period, approximately
210,000 DOD-affiliated personnel, including civilian employees of
DOD contractors, scientists, technicians, maneuver and training
troops, and support personnel,
nuclear tests.
participated in 235 atmospheric
We reported on two of these tests, known as
Operation Crossroads, in 1985.l In some tests, participants were
directly exposed to radiation. For example, in one test, five
individuals were located directly beneath a high-altitude test. In
other tests, 37 individuals were located in trenches from 2,000 to
2,600 yards from ground zero, and in others, approximately 26,000
individuals occupied trenches, bunkers, and armored vehicles from
2,500 to 5,500 yards from ground zero. According to DOD officials,
as many as 150,000 of the 210,000 participants may have been
exposed to fallout. In addition, 195,000 U.S. service members may
have been exposed to radiation during the occupation of Hiroshima
and Nagasaki, and over 4,000 other service members may have been
exposed during cleanups at Bikini, Enewetak, and Johnston Atolls
after nuclear tests were conducted. Some participants have alleged
that they were not fully informed or did not understand the
potential health risks of exposure to radiation.
In a series of experiments conducted between the 1940s and 196Os,
the Atomic Energy Commission and the U.S. Public Health Service
funded research of the potential medical effects on people from
fallout after a nuclear attack or accident. In some of the
experiments, university researchers exposed mentally disabled
children to low doses of radiation. Years after the experiments
were completed, a task force found that researchers failed to
satisfactorily inform the subjects' families about the nature and
risk of the experiments in order for them to make an informed
decision when they gave their consent. The president of one of the
universities involved in the experiments later apologized for the
use of children and the failure to provide full information about
the nature and risk. We are not aware of what, if any, further
action was taken in this case.
Chemical Tests and Experiments
During World War II and the Cold War era, the Army and the Navy
conducted two major chemical research experiments in which
thousands of service members were used as test subjects. An
unknown number of other chemical tests and experiments were
conducted under contracts with universities, hospitals, and medical
research facilities. In some of the tests and experiments, healthy
adults, psychiatric patients, and prison inmates were used without
their knowledge or consent or their full knowledge of the risks
During World War II, the Army conducted tests of protective
clothing and equipment in which thousands of people were exposed to
mustard gas and lewisite agents. In addition, the Army developed
and tested offensive chemical weapons and evaluated the
effectiveness and persistency of mustard agents in different
'Operation Crossroads: Personnel Radiation Exposure Estimates
Should Be Improved (GAO/RCED-86-15, Nov. 8, 1985).
environments. In February 1993, we reported that the Army's
records of its mustard test activities were not kept in a manner
that readily identifies the participants.* However, the available
records show that 1,002 soldiers were commended for their
participation in tests in which they subjected themselves to pain,
discomfort, and possible permanent injury for the advancement of
research in protection of the armed services.
Similar to the Army's tests, the Navy conducted tests of clothing
and equipment that exposed thousands to the effects of mustard gas
and lewisite agents. These experiments involved (1) gas chamber
tests, in which service members were completely exposed to mustard
and lewisite agents while wearing protective clothing, and (2) skin
tests, in which amounts of mustard agent and antivesicant ointments
were applied to service members' forearms. The Navy has a list of
the names of approximately 3,200 sailors who participated in
mustard and lewisite agent tests performed by the Naval Research
Laboratory. Additionally, Navy officials told us that between
15,000 and 60,000 Navy recruits had participated in skin tests
conducted by a contractor but that the Navy had no record of the
recruits' names.
From 1952 to 1975, the Army conducted a classified medical research
program to develop incapacitating agents. The program involved
testing nerve agents, nerve agent antidotes, psychochemicals, and
irritants. The chemicals were given to volunteer service members
at the Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland, and four other locations. Army
documents identify a total of 7,120 Army and Air Force personnel
who participated in these tests, about half of whom were exposed to
chemicals. The Army's Medical Research and Development Command in
Fort Detrick, Maryland, has the names and service numbers of all
test participants and a list of the chemicals to which the service
members were exposed. Some service members have testified before
congressional committees that they were not fully informed of the
risks involved.
During the same period, the Army Chemical Corps contracted with
various universities, state hospitals, and medical foundations to
research the disruptive influences that psychochemical agents could
have on combat troops. The Air Force also conducted experiments on
the effects of LSD through contracts at five universities.
According to Air Force officials and records, approximately 100
people received LSD in these experiments. No effort has been made
by the Air Force to determine if the participants' names are
available in the universities' records.
'Veterans Disabilitv: Information From Military Mav Helm VA
Assess Claims Related to Secret Tests (GAO/NSIAD-93-89, Feb. 18,
According to a CIA official, from 1553 to about 1964, the CIA
conducted a series of experiments called MKULTRA to test
vulnerabilities to behavior modification drugs. As a part of these
experiments, LSD and other psychochemical drugs were administered
to an undetermined number of people without their knowledge or
consent. According to the official, the names of those involved in
the tests are not available because names were not recorded or the
records were subsequently destroyed. However, some tests were done
under contract, and no effort has been made by the CIA to determine
if names are available in contractors' records.
Biolocrical Tests and Experiments
The Army conducted a series of biological warfare experiments and
tests between 1949 and 1974. The purpose of these tests was to
determine U.S. vulnerabilities to biological warfare. For example,
between 1949 and 1969, the Army conducted several hundred
biological warfare tests in which unaware populations were sprayed
with bacterial tracers or simulants that the Army thought were
harmless at that time. Some of the tests involved spraying large
areas, such as the cities of St. Louis and San Francisco, and
others involved spraying more focused areas, such as the New York
City subway system and Washington National Airport.
In another Army experiment conducted between 1959 and 1974,
approximately 2,200 volunteers were exposed to biological
pathogens, such as Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis and Tularemia, as
part of research to develop vaccines and antidotes. A list of all
studies and medical records of all volunteers are located at the
Army's Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in Fort
Detrick, Maryland. It appears that the participants were
adequately informed.
The effects of government tests on participants' health have been
difficult to determine. At the time of the tests, some people were
clearly harmed. However, in other cases, possible adverse health
effects related to the substances used were unknown or did not
become apparent until years later.
Available records show that people suffered immediate acute
injuries in some tests and that people died in at least two tests.
For example, available records show that some participants in the
Army's and the Navy's mustard and lewisite tests suffered burns and
required hospitalization. Also, in a highly publicized case, an
Army employee died in 1953, a short time after participating in a
CIA experiment using LSD.
However, for some test participants, the test effects were not
readily apparent. In these cases, claimed adverse health problems
did not appear until many years later. For example, in our
February 1993 report on the Army's chemical testing program, we
noted that the first health problems for most of the veterans who
sought assistance appeared many years after their military service
and at a time when these same ailments typically show up in their
general age population. Further, only a few of the veterans
alleged that their health problems were long term in nature, dating
back to their active military duty. We reported that 97 of 145
veterans seeking assistance could not prove that their health
problems were caused by participation in a test or experiment.
Research studies have also shown that exposure to some of the
substances used in the tests may create health problems that often
will not appear for many years. For example, the National Academy
of Sciences concluded in 1993 that exposure to mustard agents could
cause many serious diseases that would not immediately appear, such
as leukemia, emphysema, respiratory and skin cancers, and eye
diseases, and that lewisite agents could cause some of these same
Two federal agencies, the VA and the Department of Labor, have
programs to provide medical care and disability benefits to former
military and federal civilian personnel who have experienced health
problems as a result of their participation in government tests or
experiments. However, because there is not complete information on
those who participated and the precise adverse health effects of
their participation, it has often proven difficult for former test
participants to pursue claims. To address these problems, special
efforts have been made by some involved agencies to help groups of
test participants obtain the information necessary to pursue
claims. Other involved agencies, however, are not providing the
information test participants need. Apart from the information
issue, some participants or their survivors have sought
compensation or benefits directly through civil or specific
congressional actions.
The largest special information assistance effort is the Nuclear
Test Personnel Review program, established by DOD in 1978. This
program, administered by the Defense Nuclear Agency, has assisted
veterans by compiling data on atmospheric nuclear tests, including
the names of participants, the locations of the tests, and the
amount of radiation administered during the tests.3 This program
also involves an extensive outreach program that provides documents
31n October 1979, DUD eqanded the program to include U.S. service personnel who
hadparticipated inthepostwaroccupationof HiroshimaandNagasaki.
about the tests and informs participants of the availability of VAprovided
health care and disability benefits.
Other special actions have also been taken to help some veterans
pursue health claims related to their participation in testing. In
1988, the Congress directed the VA to relax its claims adjudication
procedures for veterans exposed to radiation resulting from
atmospheric nuclear detonations. For veterans with certain
ailments that may be attributable to radiation exposure, the VA
presumes that the ailments are service connected. In 1992, the VA
amended its regulations so that veterans of mustard testing receive
similar treatment if they develop certain diseases. In 1994, the
regulations were further amended to include lewisite.
Earlier this year, the administration initiated a large effort to
gather data on people who participated in experiments involving
intentional exposure to ionizing radiation and intentional
environmental releases of radiation. The Presidential Advisory
Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, established in January
1994, is conducting this review. We are currently reviewing the
efforts of the advisory committee at the request of the Chairman,
Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.
Let me describe some areas in which information is still needed.
Our February 1993 report stated that the military services lacked
complete information on their chemical test activities and
recommended that DOD aggregate the information and provide a point
of contact within each service to assist veterans in obtaining
information about their test experiences. DOD, in turn,
established the Chemical Weapons Exposure Task Force to identify
chemical test information and tasked the Secretaries of the Army,
the Navy, and the Air Force to provide information related to the
tests to the task force. However, to date (1) the task force
employs only one full-time investigator, (2) the Army and the Navy
have not designated points of contact to lead this effort, and (3)
the services have not conducted a complete and thorough search of
their records. Without this assistance, the VA continues to have
difficulty assisting former test participants. For example, we
were told in September 1994 that VA claims adjudicators misdirect
over 100 test information requests monthly because they do not know
which agency should receive them.
A similar situation exists with some other groups. For example,
some agencies have made little effort to assist test participants
by identifying test locations and participants in experiments
conducted by contractors. The CIA, in fact, has not released the
names of 15 of the approximately 80 organizations that conducted
experiments under the previously discussed MKULTRA program because
the organizations do not want to be identified.
Conclusive information on the effects of some biological simulants
used in the Army's testing is not available. Recently, the Army
had the Centers for Disease Control review its risk assessments for
one simulant used in some of its biological warfare tests. The
Center determined that adverse health effects from the levels of
exposure to the simulant, zinc cadmium sulfide, at those sites were
very unlikely. However, the Fiscal Year 1995 Defense Appropriation
Bill provides $1 million to further study possible adverse health
effects of exposure to this simulant.
Finally, in the case of civilian government employees, whose claims
for compensation are processed through the Department of Labor, we
were told that the rules have not been relaxed in the same way as
they have been at the VA. In some cases, civilian employees
participated in the same testing as military service members.
In selected cases, test and experiment participants have received
compensation as a result of a civil action or specific
congressional action. For example, in 1976 the President signed
legislation providing $750,000 to the family of an LSD test
participant who died in 1953 shortly after being administered LSD.'
Also, the Justice Department settled a suit brought by another
group of LSD test participants for $750,000. Another example of a
specific congressional action is the establishment of a $100
million fund to cover claims from individuals who lived downwind
from locations where above-ground nuclear tests were conducted.5
Similarly, another act authorized $184 million for Marshall Islands
citizens who may have been exposed during nuclear testing.6 These
funds are distributed to individual islands and disbursed by the
local governments.
Although guidance for protecting human subjects has existed since
the post-World War II Nuremberg trials, the principles were not
always followed by U.S. government researchers. It was not until
the 1970s that the Congress and some agencies became actively
involved in examining human research ethics and establishing laws
and regulations that became progressively more protective of human
subjects. In 1974, the Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare issued a regulation strengthening the Department's informed
consent procedures and institutional review requirements. In 1991,
the Department of Health and Human Services issued a revised,
uniform regulation for the protection of human subjects that was
'Private Law 94-126.
'The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (P.L. 101-426).
6The Compact of Free Association Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-239).
adopted by 16 federal agencies, including DOD, CIA, and other
national security agencies.
The 1947 Nuremberg Code of Ethics established the fundamental
principles for scientists and physicians involved in using people
as subjects in experiments and tests. In the Nuremberg Code, the
respect for the human rights of patients, including their voluntary
consent and their safety from undue physical or psychological harm,
was of paramount consideration. A 1953 memorandum from the
Secretary of Defense to the secretaries of the military services
directed them, in essence, to adopt the Nuremberg Code as a guide
for human experimentation. However, according to defense
officials, some of the rules, including those related to the
quality of informed consent and the capability of the subjects to
withdraw without prejudice, were not followed in the 1950s and
In 1964, the Declaration of Helsinki emphasized that clinical
research using people as subjects should be (1) based on laboratory
and animal experiments or on scientifically established facts, (2)
conducted by scientifically qualified medical persons, (3) preceded
by a careful assessment of the inherent risks versus benefits, and
(4) generally done with disclosure of the risks to the subjects and
with the subjects' free consent. In November 1966, the American
Medical Association adopted the ethical principles of the Helsinki
Declaration to guide physicians engaged in clinical research and
investigations of new drugs and procedures.
The federal regulation issued in 1974 by the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare covers the protection of humans in
experiments and tests and requires all institutions carrying out
research funded by the department to have an Institutional Review
Board. The boards are to review the risks and benefits of the
proposed research, the specific procedures to be followed, and the
process of informing the human subject and obtaining consent. The
regulation also requires institutions to describe the test
procedures and the foreseeable risks or discomforts and explain
that subjects can refuse to participate at any time. In general,
federal departments incorporated parts or all of this regulation in
their policies on human experimentation.
The Department of Health and Human Services' 1991 regulation
replaced previous federal policies and regulations and clarified
requirements for researchers to obtain informed consent from human
subjects and ensure that their participation is voluntary and based
on knowledge of the potential risks and benefits. The regulation
was subsequently adopted by 16 other federal agencies.
This concludes my prepared statement, Mr. Chairman. I will be
happy to answer any questions.
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EMW Bibliography

June 1995
Compiled by Joan Hyatt Bibliographer, Air University Library Maxwell AFB, AL
[BOOKS][DOCUMENTS][PERIODICALS][Back to Bibliography List]
[Return to Top]
Anderberg, MajGen Bengt and Wolbarsht, Myron. Laser Weapons: The Dawn of a New Military Age . New York, Plenum Press, 1992. 244p. Low Energy Antipersonnel and Antisensor Laser (LEL) Weapons, pp 139-176. Book call no.: 623.446 A543L
Applegate, Rex. Kill or Get Killed. Boulder, CO, Paladin Press, 1976. 421p. Chemical Munitions for Control of Mobs and Individuals, pp 323-362. Book call no.: 364.4 A648k 1976
Applegate, Rex. Riot Control: Materiel and Techniques. Harrisburg, PA, Stackpole Books, 1969. 320p. Book call no.: 364.4 A648k 1969
Challenge and Response: Anticipating US Military Security Concerns. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, 1994. 431p. Waging Wars with Nonlethal Weapons, by Paul O'Connor, pp 333-344. Book call no.: 355.033073 C4373 Also available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/aupress/Books/Magyar_Challenge/PDFs/challenge.pdf
Toffler, Alvin. War and Anti-War: Survival at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century. Boston, MA, Little, Brown, 1993. 302p. Book call no.: 355.02 T644w
U.S. Intervention Policy for the Post-Cold War World. New York, Norton, 1994. 256p. New applications of Nonlethal and Less Lethal Technology, by Richard Garwin, pp 105-131. Book call no.: 327.73009049 U582
[Return to Top]
AAI Corp. Incapacitating Agent Weapons Technology. Baltimore, MD, 1979. 99p. Doc. call no.: M-U 42492-4
Australia. Royal Australian Air Force. Air Power Studies Centre. Non-Lethal Weapons: Implications for the RAAF. Fairbairn AFB, Australia, 1995. 22p.(Paper No. 38) Doc. call no.: M-U 36760-111
Ehmke, Charles. The Use of Non-Lethal Chemical Agents in Limited Warfare. Maxwell AFB, AL, 1966. 58p.(Air University. Air Command and Staff College. Thesis) Doc. call no.: M-U 35582-7 E33u
Hansen, George. Non-Lethal Gases for Guerrilla Warfare. Maxwell AFB, AL, 1966. 56p.(Air University. Air War College. Professional study) Doc. call no.: M-U 32983 H2492n
Higgins, John. Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons in Counterinsurgency. Maxwell AFB, AL, 1967. 43p.(Air University. Air Command and Staff College. Thesis) Doc. call no.: M-U 35582-7 H636n
Hust, Gerald. Taking Down Telecommunications. Maxwell AFB, AL, 1994. 65p.(Air University. School of Advanced Airpower Studies. Thesis) Doc. call no.: M-U 43998-1a H972t Also available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/aupress/SAAS_Theses/SAASS_Out/Hust/hust.pdf
Linder, Jim. Non-Lethal Weapons: Direct Employment Against Non-Combatants in MOOTW. Newport, RI, 1995. 15p.(Naval WAr College. Paper) Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 L744n
Morehouse, David. A New Strategic Era: A Case for Nonlethal Weapons. Ft. Leavenworth, KS, 1992. 252p.(U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Thesis) Doc. call no.: M-U 42022 M825n
National Security and the Need for Nonlethal Options by J. B. Alexander. Los Alamos, NM, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1993. 1 vol.(LA-UR-93-285) Doc. call no.: M-U 43813-1 no.93-285
Non-Lethal Weapons and the Future of War. by John Alexander. Los Alamos, NM, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995. 1 vol.(LA-UR-95-699) Doc. call no.: M-U 43813-1 no.95-699 Potential Non-Lethal Policy Issues. by J. B. Alexander. Los Alamos, NM, Los Alamos
National Laboratory, 1992. 1 vol.(LA-UR-92-3206) Doc. call no.: M-U 43813-1 no.92-3206
Roberts, Clifford. Nonlethal Agents in Limited War. Maxwell AFB, AL, 1966. 44p.(Air University. Air Command and Staff College. Thesis) Doc. call no.: M-U 35582-7 R6432n
Stuck, Monte. Future U.S. Use of Non-Lethal Chemical Agents in Warfare. Norfolk, VA, 1972. 1 vol.(Armed Forces Staff College. Staff study) Doc. call no.: M-U 36185-21 S932f
U.S. Air Force Armament Laboratory. CBU-30/A Incapacitating Munitions Systems. s.l., 1967. 41p.(AFATL-TR-67-178) Doc. call no.: M-U 42025 no.67-178
U.S. Army Foreign Science and Technology Center. Brief Survey of Non-Wounding Anti-Riot Weapons by Renaud de la Taille. Charlottesville, VA, 1980. 13p.(FSTC-HT-1092-79) Doc. call no.: M-U 38479-34 1980 no.1092-79
U.S. Army Research Laboratory. Less-than-Lethal Weapons Development for Law Enforcement. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 1993. 46p.(ARL-TR-51) Doc. call no.: M-U 44090-1 no.51
[Return to Top]
Aftergood, Steven. The Soft-Kill Fallacy: The Idea of Non-Lethal Weapons Is Politically Attractive and Purposely Misleading. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 50:40-45 Sep-Oct '94. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9409081585&db=aph
Alderman, Lesley. In Your Face. Money 22:15 Apr '93. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9303180459&db=aph
Alexander, John. Non-Lethal Weapons Demand Expands as Missions Change. National Defense 80:34-35 Mar '96.
Alexander, Lexi and Klare, Julia. Nonlethal Weapons: New Tools for Peace. Issues in Science and Technology 12:67-74 Winter '95-'96. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9601243991&db=aph
Amouyal, Barbara. Use of Nonlethal Weapons May Alter Military Strategy. Defense News 5:7 Nov 19 '90.
Amouyal, Barbara and Munro, Neil. Labs Rush Nonlethal Arms for Mideast Deployment. Defense News 10:1+ Nov 5 '90.
Anderberg, Bengt and others. Blinding Laser Weapons and International Humanitarian Law. Journal of Peace Research 29:287-297 Aug '92. Also available online at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-3433%28199208%2929%3A3%3C287%3ABLWAIH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6
Andrews, Andrew and Alexander, John. Softer Response Required as Global Threats Change. National Defense 78:23-24 Oct '93.
Arbetter, Lisa. A Pepper Pinch. Security Management 38:14-15 Jun '94. Use of pepper in security personnel training. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9502011333&db=buh
Army Prepares for Non-Lethal Combat. Aviation Week & Space Technology 138:62 May 24 '93.
Atwal, Kay and Tapscott, Mark. Non-lethal Laser Rifle Testing at Fort Bragg, Naval Anti-Missile Laser Is Readied for Sea. Defense Electronics 25:18-19 Apr '93.
Baker, David. Wizard Wars & Air Power in the 21st Century--Part 2. Air International 47:214-217 Oct '94.
Barry, John. Soon, Phasers on Stun. Newsweek 123:24-26 Feb 7 '94. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9401317723&db=aph
Capaccio, Tony. Are Vapor Bullets in Air Force Future? Defense Week 16:9 Jan 9 '95.
Capaccio, Tony. U.S. Commanders State Uses for Non-Lethal Technology. Defense Week 16:3+ Jan 23 '95.
Cassidy, Peter. Guess Who's the Enemy. Progressive 60:22-24 Jan '96.
Cohen, Eliot. The Mystique of U.S. Air Power. Foreign Affairs 73:109-124 Jan-Feb '94. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9404111579&db=f5h
Cook, Joseph and others. Non-Lethal Weapons Technologies, Legalities, and Potential Policies. Journal of Legal Studies 5:23-43 '94-'95. An electronic copy of this article may be viewed by using the AU Library subscription database Lexis/Nexis Academic Universe at the site below: Also available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/firstsearch/au.htm
Cook, Nick. Russia Leads in Pulse Weapons. Jane's Defence Weekly 18:5 Oct 10 '92.
Cooper, Pat. U.S. Tests Nonlethal Weapon Policy in Somalia. Defense News 10:28 Feb 27-Mar 5 '95.
Cooper, Pat and Opall, Barbara. Perry Plans To Launch Nonlethal Warfare Effort. Defense News 9:6 Sep 19-25 '94.
Davis, Malcolm. How To Win Wars Without Actually Killing. Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 20:36-37 Apr-May '94. Research into Electro-magnetic Pulse (EMP) weapons.
Debban, Alan. Disabling Systems: War-Fighting Option for the Future. Airpower Journal 7:44-50 Spring '93. Also available online at: http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/debban.html
deBriganti, Giovanni. Lasers, Viruses, May Rule No-Fly Zone Sky. Defense News 9:1+ Feb 7-13 '94.
DOD To Adopt Policy on Non-Lethal Weapons by Late 1994. Defense Daily 183:301-302 May 25 '94.
DOD Urged To Adopt Nonlethal Warfare Strategy. Defense Electronics 24:22 Mar '92.
Donnelly, John. Task Force Endorses Hard Look at Non-Lethal Weapons. Defense Week 16:9+ Jul 3 '95.
Evancoe, Paul. Non-lethal Alternatives Weighed by Law Officers. National Defense 78:28-30 May-Jun '94.
Evancoe, Paul. Non-lethal Technologies Enhance Warrior's Punch. National Defense 78:26-29 Dec '93.
Evancoe, Paul. Tomorrow's Weapons of Choice? Military Technology 18:68-71 Jun '94.
Evancoe, Paul and Bentley, Mark. CVW: Computer Virus as a Technology Weapon. Military Technology 18:38-40 May '94.
Examples of Nonlethal Weapons. Defense Electronics 24:22 Mar '92.
Fischetti, Mark. Less than Lethal Weapons (in police equipment). Technology Review 98:14-15 Jan '95. Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1893548&sid=10&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Fulghum, David. Air Force May Delay JPATS, TSSAM. Aviation Week & Space Technology 141:26-27 Sep 19 '94.
Fulghum, David. ALCMs Given Nonlethal Role. Aviation Week & Space Technology 138:20-22 Feb 22 '93.
Fulghum, David. EMP Weapons Lead Race for Non-Lethal Technology. Aviation Week & Space Technology 138:61 May 24 '93.
Fulghum, David. Smart Weapons To Boost Impact of B-1, B-2 Force. Aviation Week & Space Technology 140:48-49 May 2 '94.
Fulghum, David. U.S. Weighs Use of Nonlethal Weapons in Serbia If U.N. Decides To Fight. Aviation Week & Space Technology 137:62-63 Aug 17 '92.
Garwin, Richard. Secret Weapons for the CNN Era. Harper's Magazine 289:17-18 Oct '94.
Gips, Michael. Girth Control (stun belts for prisoner control). Security Management 39:11 Jun '95. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9506291615&db=buh
Goodman, Glenn. Upping the Nonlethal Ante: Pentagon Funds a New Weapons Initiative. Armed Forces Journal International 131:13 Jul '94.
Goure, Dan. Is There a Military-Technical Revolution in America's Future? Washington Quarterly 16:175-192 Autumn '93.
Grudowski, Mike. Not-So-Lethal Weapons. New York Times Magazine, pp 40-41, Aug 13 '95. Police equipment.
Gunther, Judith. The Digital Warrior. Popular Science 245:60-64+ Sep '94. Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=5024649&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Head, Andy. Laser Protection Concepts. Military Technology 19:17-20+ May '95.
Hecht, Jeff. Lasers Designed To Blind. New Scientist 135:27-31 Aug 8 '92.
Herskovitz, Don. Killing Them Softly. Journal of Electronic Defense 16:41-42+ Aug '93.
Hitchens, Theresa. DOD Nonlethal Effort Fuels Fear of Treaty Violations. Defense News 9:3+ Sep 26-Oct 2 '94.
Hogg, Ian. World of Insecurity Remains. Jane's Defence Weekly 22:33+ Nov 12 '94.
Holt, Pat. Non-Lethal Warfare's Promises and Problems. Christian Science Monitor 87:19 Aug 3 '95. A Council on Foreign Relations report: Non-Lethal Technologies: Military Options and Implications. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9508250575&db=aph
Horgan, John. Bang! You'r Alive. Scientific American 270:22+ Apr '94.
Hunter, Roger. Disabling Systems for the Air Force. Airpower Journal 8:43+ Fall '94. Also available online at: http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj94/hunter.html
John B. Alexander, Program Manager for Nonlethal Defense, Los Alamos (NM) National Laboratory. Aviation Week & Space Technology 140:19-20 Jan 24 '94.
Joy to the World. Computerworld 24:72 Dec 24 '90-Jan 1 '91. Computer viruses as nonlethal weapons.
Kiernan, Vincent. War Over Weapons That Can't Kill. New Scientist 140:14-16 Dec 11 '93.
Knoth, Artur. March of the Insectoids. International Defense Review 27:55-58 Nov 1 '94.
Lancaster, John. Pentagon, Justice Dept, Set Plans for Sharing Nonlethal Technology. Current News Early Bird, p 4, Mar 23 '94. Original in: Washington Post, p 3, Mar 23 '94.
Langreth, Robert. Soft Kill (R & D). Popular Science 245:66-69 Oct '94. Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=5024739&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Less Than Lethal. International Defense Review 27:28-30+ Jul '94.
Lewer, Nick. Non-Lethal Weapons. Medicine and War 11:78-90 Apr-Jun '95.
Lorenz, Frederick. Less-Lethal Force in Operation United Shield. Marine Corps Gazette 79:68-76 Sep '95. Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=5024739&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Manley, Harriot. Guide to Self-Defense Devices. Good Housekeeping 216:227 Mar '93.
Merchant, Julie. Threat Weapons and Weapons Technologies: Implications for Army SOF. Special Warfare 7:32-39 Jul '94.
Metz, Steven and Kievit, James. The Siren Song of Technology and Conflict Short of War. Special Warfare 9:2-10 Jan '96.
Morris, Chris and others. Weapons of Mass Protection: Nonlethality, Information Warfare, and Airpower in the Age of Chaos. Airpower Journal 9:15-29 Spring '95. Also available online at: http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/morris.html
Morrison, David. Bang! Bang! You've Been Inhibited! National Journal 24:758-759 Mar 28 '92.
Morrison, David. Crime-Fighting 2001. Government Executive 26:42-44 Oct '94. Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=8954783&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Morrison, David. Robocops. National Journal 26:889-893 Apr 16 '94. Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=5881480&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Morrison, David. War Without Death? National Journal 24:2589 Nov 7 '92. Neven, Thomas. Nonlethal Weapons: Expanding Our Options. Marine Corps Gazette 77:61-62 Dec '93.
Nollinger, Mark. Surrender or We'll Slime You. Wired 3:90+ Feb '95.
Non-lethal Devices Slice Across Science Spectrum. National Defense 78:25 Oct '93.
Non-Lethal Weapons: Alternatives to Deadly Force. Futurist 27:20-23 Sep '93. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9311291682&db=aph
Nonlethal Weapons Give Peacekeepers Flexibility. Aviation Week & Space Technology 137:50-51 Dec 7 '92.
O'Connell, Edward and Dillaplain, John. Nonlethal Concepts: Implications for Air Force Intelligence. Airpower Journal 8:26-33 Winter '94. Also available online at: http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj94/dil.html
Opall, Barbara. Pentagon Unites Jostle over Non-Lethal Initiative. Defense News 7:6 Mar 2 '92.
Phasers on Stun. Journal of Policy Analysis & Management 9:94-98 Winter '90.
Rosenberg, Barbara. Non-Lethal Weapons May Violate Treaties. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 50:44-45 Sep-Oct '94. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9409081586&db=aph
Rosenberg, Eric. Pentagon Memo Seeks To Better Explain Non-Lethal Weaponry. Defense Week 16:5 Mar 6 '95.
Rothstein, Linda. The Soft-Kill Solution. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 50:4-6 Mar-Apr '94. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9402237527&db=aph
Scott, William. Panel's Report Backs Nonlethal Weapons. Aviation Week & Space Technology 143:50-51 Oct 16 '95. The Commission on Roles and Missions Report, 1995.
Serwer, Andrew. Crime Stoppers Make a Killing. Fortune 129:109-111 Apr 4 '94. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9403257647&db=aph
The Sound of Waco. Journal of Electronic Defense 16:42 Aug '93. Using sound as a nonlethal weapon.
Starr, Barbara. Pentagon Maps Non-Lethal Options. International Defense Review 27:30-31 Jul '94.
Sticky 'Em Up. Maclean's 108:11 Mar 6 '95. U.S. Marines use sticky foam in Somalia. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9503067504&db=aph
Stix, Gary. Fighting Future Wars. Scientific American 273:92-98 Dec '95. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9512034960&db=aph
Tapscott, Mark. Reno Asks Aspin for Non-lethal, Other DOD Weapons To Fight Crime. Defense Electronics 25:8 Dec '93.
Tapscott, Mark and Atwal, Kay. New Weapons That Win Without Killing on DOD's Horizon. Defense Electronics 25:41-46 Feb '93.
Tennenbaum, Abraham and Moore, Angela. Non-Lethal Weapons: Alternatives to Deadly Force. Futurist 27:20-23 Sep-Oct '93. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9311291682&db=aph
Tigner, Brooks. NATO Eyes Peacekeeping Tools. Defense News 9:4+ Jul 11-17 '94.
Tillman, Andrew. Weapons for the 21st Century Soldier. International Defense Review 27:34-38 Jan '94.
Toro, Taryn. Foreign Students in Berlin Urged To Arm Themselves. Chronicle of Higher Education 40:35 Jul 20 '94. Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1574853&sid=13&Fmt=2&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Welsch, Roger. Sticker Shock. Natural History 103:30-31 Oct '94. A humorous look at non-lethal weapons. Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9410115382&db=aph
Williams, Robert. Non-Lethal Devices Slice Across Science Spectrum. National Defense 78:25 Oct '93.
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Last Updated: August 18, 2005